Reading 13 - Reading 13: The Americas Before European...

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Reading 13: The Americas Before European Contact Points: 50 Directions: Click here to get a packet of articles on the Americas. The list of articles includes: “Anasazi Culture at its Height” J.J. Brody “Who were the Ancestral Peueblo People/Mogolllon Culture/Anasazi Culture/Hohokam” “The Mound Builders”/ from “Atlas of the North American Indian” Descriptions of Tenochtitlan from Cortes and Dias Mesoamerican Poetry by Nezahualcoyotl Inca Laws from Cobo Aztec Traders by Pomerantz Map of Tenochtitlan region of Mexico Do the following: 1. Give the dates for the Adena and the Hopewell cultures.- The Adena started in 1000 BC and ended in 200 AD, last 1200 years. The Hopewell culture began 700 years after than the Adena, in 300 BC. Their culture also ended in a shorter amount of time, only 1000 years. 2. Do we know where these two groups came from (Adena & Hopewell)?- It is unknown where either the Hopewell or the Adena cultures came from. Some scholars have believed that they came from as far away as the Middle Americas or the Great Lakes area. In the 19 th century some believed lost Europeans built the mounds, but the artifacts were clearly aboriginal. 3. Give the geographic location/area for the Adena.- The Adena culture covered a vast area of land that was centralized in the Ohio River valley and diverged from there fo what is now Kentucky, West Virginia, Indiana, Pennsylvania and New York. Later in their existence, maybe around 100 BC, the Hopewell people probably displaced them and they settled near the Chesapeake Bay and also in Indiana. 4. What did the Adena do for a living?- The Adenas were farmers, growing sunflowers, pumpkins, gourds, and goosefoot as food sources. Evidence has also been found that tobacco was grown for ceremonial purposes. The Adenas were mainly hunters and gatherers. They enjoyed “the rich flora and fauna of their homelands.” The people were even rich enough to live a sedentary rather than a nomadic life-style. 5. Why do scholars think the Adena had a “high degree of social organization”?- The Earthworks found in and around the villages showed a high degree of social organization. 6. Give a couple examples of the Adena mounds and what were they used for?- “ Moreover, the Adenas constructed earthen effigy mounds-totemic animals or symbols. The Great Serpent Mound in Peebles, Ohio, is a prime example. A low, rounded embankment, about four feet high and 15 to 20 feet across, extends 1,330 feet in the shape of an uncoiling snake with jaws and tail.” Conical and dome-shaped burial mounds grew larger and more ambitious over the centuries. “In the early stages of the culture, low earthen hillocks were built up, basketful by basketful, over the burial pits of honored individuals.” Later on, multiple burials occurred at the same time, and another layer of dirt would be added for new burials. “Often these earthen monuments were surrounded by other
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course HIST 123 taught by Professor Mr.shmit during the Spring '11 term at St. Vincent.

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Reading 13 - Reading 13: The Americas Before European...

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