Reading 13: The Americas Before European Contact
to get a packet of articles on the Americas. The list of articles includes:
“Anasazi Culture at its Height” J.J. Brody
“Who were the Ancestral Peueblo People/Mogolllon Culture/Anasazi Culture/Hohokam”
“The Mound Builders”/ from “Atlas of the North American Indian”
Descriptions of Tenochtitlan from Cortes and Dias
Mesoamerican Poetry by Nezahualcoyotl
Inca Laws from Cobo
Aztec Traders by Pomerantz
Map of Tenochtitlan region of Mexico
Do the following:
Give the dates for the Adena and the Hopewell cultures.-
The Adena started in 1000 BC and
ended in 200 AD, last 1200 years. The Hopewell culture began 700 years after than the Adena, in
Their culture also ended in a shorter amount of time, only 1000 years.
Do we know where these two groups came from (Adena & Hopewell)?-
It is unknown where
either the Hopewell or the Adena cultures came from.
Some scholars have believed that they
came from as far away as the Middle Americas or the Great Lakes area.
In the 19
believed lost Europeans built the mounds, but the artifacts were clearly aboriginal.
Give the geographic location/area for the Adena.-
The Adena culture covered a vast area of
land that was centralized in the Ohio River valley and diverged from there fo what is now
Kentucky, West Virginia, Indiana, Pennsylvania and New York.
Later in their existence, maybe
around 100 BC, the Hopewell people probably displaced them and they settled near the
Chesapeake Bay and also in Indiana.
What did the Adena do for a living?-
The Adenas were farmers, growing sunflowers, pumpkins,
gourds, and goosefoot as food sources.
Evidence has also been found that tobacco was grown for
The Adenas were mainly hunters and gatherers. They enjoyed “the rich
flora and fauna of their homelands.”
The people were even rich enough to live a sedentary
than a nomadic life-style.
Why do scholars think the Adena had a “high degree of social organization”?-
Earthworks found in and around the villages showed a high degree of social organization.
Give a couple examples of the Adena mounds and what were they used for?- “
Adenas constructed earthen effigy mounds-totemic animals or symbols. The Great Serpent Mound
in Peebles, Ohio, is a prime example. A low, rounded embankment, about four feet high and 15 to
20 feet across, extends 1,330 feet in the shape of an uncoiling snake with jaws and tail.” Conical
and dome-shaped burial mounds grew larger and more ambitious over the centuries.
“In the early
stages of the culture, low earthen hillocks were built up, basketful by basketful, over the burial pits
of honored individuals.”
Later on, multiple burials occurred at the same time, and another layer of
dirt would be added for new burials. “Often these earthen monuments were surrounded by other