Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn: (A) Essentially all of the land has been continuously covered with tropical forests, from 300 million years ago until present, except those forests destroyed recently by humans; (B) Nearly all of the land area receives more than two meters of annual rainfall; (C) The species of plants living in that zone are widespread around that band of the earth, thus with the same species occurring in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia; (D) The type of vegetation at any given location is determined to a large extent by the amount of precipitation received in which months and the overall temperature regime; (E) A and B. In the neotropical wet forests, these creatures are more responsible for nutrient cycling than are the other animals in their forest ecosystem: (A) earthworms; (B) gophers and other fossorial mammals; (C) leafcutter ants and termites; (D) primates; (E) spiders and mites. Regarding eukaryotic biodiversity measures, the most numerous species per hectare of any wet tropical forest would be: (A) arachnids; (B) birds; (C) herps (amphibians and reptiles); (D) hexapods; (E) plants. What of the following is a remarkable aspect of neotropical army ants (Eciton)?: (A) Every animal living within a 100-meter radius of the nest will eventually be killed by them; (B) Their stings are capable of paralyzing even coral snakes; (C) The queen is the largest insect on earth while she is laying eggs; (D) The queen often lives more than ten years, producing at least 30,000 eggs every day of her life; (E) This is the type of tropical ant that, during a two-week period each month, breaks down its nest and rebuilds another, a bivouac, each night during that period. Members of this group of mostly non-flying arthropods have mouth parts on adults modified to suck sugary solutions from plant phloem, and are used, and even “farmed,” by certain ants: (A) grasshoppers and crickets; (B) homopterans; (C) Hymenoptera; (D) Lepidoptera; (E) Myriapoda. When grabbed, a boiling hot spray of benzaquinone is produced from a reaction chamber in the abdomen of this creature: (A) a bullet ant; (B) bombardier beetle; (C) dung scarab beetle; (D) tarantula and wolf spider; (E) whipscorpion.
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