Midterm Winter 2009


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1 TROPICAL ECOLOGY/THE NATURE OF TROPICAL FORESTS MIDTERM Winter 2009 Prof. Arthur C. Gibson INSTRUCTIONS: PRINT your name clearly on the answer sheet. Be sure that question number corresponds to the number on the answer sheet. If you do not understand a question, ask now. Be sure to answer all questions, because there is no penalty for guessing. Turn in the answer sheet; keep the exam questions. The answer key for the exam will be posted midafternoon on the course website. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Items 1 49 on the answer sheet. 3 points each. Notice that some of the questions are written in a negative format. The responses of each question are listed in alphabetical order. Select the one best answer for each. 1. Which part of the world would you visit to see the great monsoon tropical forests of the world?: (A) Amazonia (B) India and adjacent Southeast Asia (C) Madagascar (D) Queensland and adjacent Papua New Guinea (E) the Congo 2. Attine ants (tribe Attini): (A) are found only in tropical ecosystems; (B) cultivate species of Escovopsis as food for the colony; (C) grow a basidiomycete on plant materials, with different types of materials for different groups of attine ants; (D) B and C. (E) A, B, and C. 3. Cellulase: (A) breaks down cellulose into smaller, fatty acid chains; (B) is made by 1-celled endosymbionts living in the gut of termites and capable of enzymatically hydrolyzing cell walls of plants; (C) is produced in the head of a termite and is sprayed on its enemies as a sticky substance; (D) occurs in the gut of leaf-cutter ants, which is how they are able to consume leaves; (E) occurs in the saliva of termites and is capable of enzymatically hydrolyzing plant cell walls. 4. This group of arthropods has no mandibles and feeds by injecting the prey with digestive enzymes and then sucking up the liquid products: (A) adult beetles and adult ants; (B) caterpillars of moths and butterflies; (C) centipedes; (B) millipedes; (E) spiders.
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2 5. Chitin is: (A) a polymer of sugars (polysaccharide) but containing N; (B) the mostly indigestible substance forming the exoskeleton of insects and arachnids; (C) the nitrogen-containing compound found in plant leaves that is used by animals as a precursor to manufacture neurotoxins; (D) A and B; (E) none of the above. 6. These orangish structures formed on the tips of Acacia leaflets are used by Pseudomyrmex ants to feed the larvae: (A) Beltian bodies; (B) gongylidia; (C) Müllerian bodies; (D) trichilia; (E) trophic eggs. 7. What type of forest would you expect to find in the equatorial zone at an undisturbed location having the following conditions [5ºS latitude, year-round 18ºC daily noontime temperature and never freezing, 4500 mm annual rainfall evenly distributed during 10 months, elevation 1800 meters]: (A) lowland evergreen tropical rain forest; (B) mangal (mangrove forest); (C) monsoon forest; (D) tropical deciduous forest; (E) tropical montane rain forest. 8.
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