Module 7 (Lec 1) - Nutrition

Module 7 (Lec 1) - Nutrition - Nutrition,Health,andFitness...

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    Nutrition, Health, and Fitness Nutrients
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    What is Nutrition? Study of food and the way the body uses food  to produce energy, build and repair the body Good nutrition – the diet provides all  necessary components to maintain a healthy  body Bad nutrition – the diet has a deficit or excess  of one or more components, leading to less  than optimal health
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    Two Main Categories of  Nutrients:  Macro and Micro Macronutrients :  carbohydrates, fats, and  proteins Provide energy Provide building blocks for growth and repair of  tissues Micronutrients :  vitamins and minerals Affect enzyme function in cells Affect other cellular functions, e.g., nerve  impulses, muscle contraction, oxygen transport
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    Macronutrients:  Carbohydrates Include:  simple sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose  (fiber) Simple sugars (also called simple carbohydrates in the  book) include glucose, lactose, sucrose (table sugar),  etc.  See table 7.1 Starch is the CHO storage form of plants.  It is found in  grains, potatoes, and legumes Fiber is also found in plants, e.g., in the forms of  cellulose & pectin.  It is not digestible by humans.   Glycogen is the CHO storage form of animals.  It is  digestible.
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    Carbohydrates For healthy, physically active adults, 55-70%  of calories consumed should come from CHO Glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as  glycogen or is converted into fat for storage To use CHO for energy, the body first  converts the CHO into the simple sugar  glucose CHO supplies 4 calories/gram
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    Fiber Indigestible CHO from plants Soluble – found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, oat bran Insoluble – found in whole grains Both can be beneficial to health, and can aid in weight  loss Higher intake appears to lower risk of colon cancer &  coronary heart disease, can aid in diabetes control Mean dietary fiber intake in USA is 15g/day – about half  of the AHA recommended amount of 25-30 g/day  (however, excess is not good)
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    Macronutrients:  Fats Include simple fats (primarily triglycerides),  compound fats (lipoproteins – esp. LDL,  HDL), and derived fats (cholesterol) Can be found in both animal and plant-based  foods Essential fats (must be provided by diet):   linoleic and linolenic acids Important for absorption, transport, and  storage of the fat-soluble vitamins Provide 9 cal/gram
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