Lecture_22_mutualism_25%20March[1]

Lecture_22_mutualism_25%20March[1] - CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM Gregory G. and Mary Beth Dimijian Mutualism= interaction between individuals of different species that benefit both partners Mutualisms are crucial to the evolution of the biosphere as we know it. Many of the benefits sought by living things are disproportionately available to cooperating groups. Axelrod & Hamilton (Science 211:1390-1396, 1981) In 1876, Pierre-Joseph van Beneden first introduced the terms mutualism and commensalism in his book Animal Parasites and Messmates . The assistance rendered by animals to each other is as varied as that which is found among men. Some receive merely abode, others nourishment, others again food and shelter; we find a perfect system of board and lodging combined with philozoic [literally means love-animal] institute arranged in the most perfect manner. In 1879, Anton de Bary coined the term symbiosis in a paper called The Phenomenon of Symbiosis. de Bary was a German mycologist carrying out pioneering studies in plant pathology. He was the first to note that fungi can cause plant diseases. Anton de Bary also studied lichens and was the first to suggest that lichens are associations between algae and fungi . He defined symbiosis as simply the living together of different organisms with no limitation on the benefits or harm experienced by the associates. de Bary considered symbioses could be parasitic (+/-), commensalistic (0/+), or mutualistic (+/+). Gradually the term symbiosis became equated with the term mutualism which is unfortunate because it reduces the clarity of the terms. However, many biologists are now going back to the more general definition of symbiosis that was originally proposed by de Bary. Refresh your memory of de Barys...
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2011 for the course BIO 326 taught by Professor Gehring,c during the Spring '08 term at N. Arizona.

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Lecture_22_mutualism_25%20March[1] - CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM...

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