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Lecture_22_mutualism_25%20March[1]

Lecture_22_mutualism_25%20March[1] - CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM...

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CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM CHAPTER 15-MUTUALISM ©  Gregory G. and Mary Beth Dimijian
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Mutualism= interaction between individuals of different  species  that benefit both partners Mutualisms are crucial to the evolution of  the biosphere as we know it.   “Many of the benefits sought by living things are  disproportionately available to cooperating groups.”   Axelrod & Hamilton (Science 211:1390-1396, 1981)
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In  1876, Pierre-Joseph van Beneden  first  introduced the terms “mutualism ” and  “commensalism ” in his book  Animal Parasites and Messmates  “The assistance rendered by animals to each other is as  varied as that which is found among men.  Some receive  merely abode, others nourishment, others again food and  shelter; we find a perfect system of board and lodging  combined with philozoic [literally means “love-animal”]  institute arranged in the most perfect manner.”
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In  1879, Anton de Bary  coined the term  “symbiosis”   in a paper called “The Phenomenon  of Symbiosis.”  de Bary was a German mycologist carrying out  pioneering studies in plant pathology.   He was the first to note that fungi can cause  plant diseases.  
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Anton de Bary  also studied lichens and was the first to  suggest that lichens are associations between  algae and fungi .   He defined symbiosis as simply the  living together”  of different organisms with no limitation on  the benefits or harm experienced by the associates.  de Bary considered symbioses could be parasitic (+/-),  commensalistic (0/+), or mutualistic (+/+).  
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Gradually the term symbiosis became equated with the term  mutualism which is unfortunate because it reduces the clarity of  the terms.  However, many biologists are now going back to the more general  definition of symbiosis that was originally proposed by de Bary.
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Refresh your memory of de Bary’s definitions: Symbiosis  =   
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