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BIO2A03-2011-L19 - Biol 2A03-2011 Lecture 19 2 Cell...

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Biol 2A03 -2011 Lecture 19
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2 Cell Types: (neurons and glial) A) Neurons - Many different types and anatomies (ie: afferent sensory neurons,  interneurons, efferent motor neurons), in humans they can be 1mm to 1m in  length. - Make up  10 % of cells of the nervous system. - Basic functional unit. -   Excitable   cells   : can produce rapid electrical signals  “Action Potentials” (APs)   = waves of electrochemical energy that pass along the length of the neuron. Use  APs to transmit information  rapidly   over  long distances . - Can be Structurally  and Functionally  classified.
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Sensory/receptor Effector organs 3 Functional classes of Neurons, Fig 8.4, pg 215 2. Interneurons 1. Afferent neuron (input) 3. Efferent neuron (output)
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Structure of a Typical Neuron Dendrites: numerous small branches,  receive most of incoming information from  other neurons via synapses. Results in  Graded   Potentials   (GPs) . Cell body or  soma: contains most  organelles, metabolic functions. Axon hillock : trigger zone, fires APs as  a result of summation of  GPs . Site of most Integration . Axon: thick process, rapidly conducts  outgoing information  coded as APs .
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