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BIO2A03-2011-L28 - Biology 2A03 2011 Lecture 28 Respiration...

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Biology 2A03 - 2011 Lecture 28 Respiration V
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Central Regulation of Ventilation Fig 18-15 Apneustic  center Pneumotaxic  center Respiratory control center Rhythmicity center I neurons E neurons Spinal cord Ventilatory muscles for inhalation (Diaphragm and intercostals) Stimulates inhalation Terminates inhalation Fires during inhalation Fires during exhalation Always ON  (not rhythmic) Cyclically active (i.e. has a pacemaker) Autorhythmicity and inhibit each other x x x 1. Regulation of inhalation / exhalation rhythm 2. Regulation rate and depth Pre-Bötzinger Complex
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Apneustic and pneumotaxic centers: in pons sets pattern          and depth  of  breathing I and E neurons of the rhythmicity center: in medulla set rate  of breathing Central Regulation of Ventilation Activity of the whole “respiratory control center ” is affected by: Movement and position receptors in limbs ( joint-tendon receptors ) Stretch receptors in windpipe Plasma hormones (e.g. epinephrine increases ventilation) Plasma K + , lactate Peripheral chemoreceptors   monitor  PaO   2 , pH and PaCO   2 Central chemoreceptors   which monitors  PaCO   2  
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Central Chemoreceptors Figure 18.20 More sensitive and accurate than  peripheral chemoreceptors Monitors PaCO 2  through changes in  cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pH CO 2  can cross blood-brain barrier while H +   cannot easily cross Lots of  carbonic anhydrase   in the CSF
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Central Chemoreceptors Central chemoreceptors are the most important controls  of breathing Located in the medulla near the rhythmicity center and  monitors  PCO   2    
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