Chapter 17 Science, The Environment, and Society

Chapter 17 Science, The Environment, and Society - Chapter...

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Chapter 17 Science, The Environment, and Society Science and Society Sociologists of science look at the interactions between science and society. A paradigm is the framework within which scientists operate. There are particular paradigms for particular branches of scientific research. According to Thomas Kuhn, normal science is the science conducted within an existing paradigm. During the practice of normal science, discoveries may be made that add to or clarify, but don't challenge, the existing paradigm. Thomas Kuhn theorizes that scientific revolutions , also called paradigm shifts , occur when enough anomalies accrue during the practice of normal science to challenge the existing paradigm. Normative science is the notion that science is unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists but rather follows objective rules of evidence. In practice, however, social factors such as funding availability, government policies (which in turn can be affected by interest groups), and international pressure or competition can affect choices about what scientific research is pursued . Boundary work refers to research conducted on the border between legitimate and nonlegitimate science, either within a specific scientific discipline or between disciplines. Anthropologists Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar claim that scientific facts don't just reveal themselves through experiments and research but are socially constructed as scientists debate findings, discuss results, and work through disagreements, all of which is influenced by unequal power relations between researchers. The Matthew effect , a term coined by Robert Merton, refers to the notion that certain scientific results get more notice and have more influence based on the existing prestige of the researchers involved. Agriculture and the Environment
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course SOCI 1301 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at HCCS.

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Chapter 17 Science, The Environment, and Society - Chapter...

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