"that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" (Tylor, 1871, p. 1)
"a set of meanings that human beings impose on the world" (Obeyesekere, 1981, p. 110)"a
historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited
conceptions expressed in symbolic form by means of which men [and women] communicate,
perpetuate and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life" (Geertz, 1973, p. 89)
"The judgmental or normative dimension, which reflects social standards and values.
cognitive dimension, which relates to social perceptions, conceptions, attributions.
.. the affective
dimension, the emotional structure of a social unit, including its common feelings, sources of
motivations, joy and sorrow, and sense of value.
..the skills dimension, signifying those special
capabilities people develop to meet the demands of their social and technoeconomic
..the technological dimension, the notion of culture as accumulated artifacts,
instrumentation, and techniques" (Gordon, 1982, p. 187-188)
“It includes what “has worked” in the past and can be identified by examininbeliefs, attitudes,
and values, are shared and transmitted from one generation to the nextg the extent to which
psychological processes, such as” (Triandis, 1997, pp. 442-443, on cultural syndromes)
Some definitions of culture, both classical and modern