08.culturaldifferences - Early approaches to the study of...

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1 Early approaches to the study of culture and personality Ruth Benedict (1934): Patterns of culture Two personality types of the Southwest Pueblos Appolonian - sober, mistrustful of excessive behavior Dyonisian - generalized love for excess Wartime approaches (Kardiner, 1945, Linton, 1945) Dominant personality National character The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (Benedict, 1946)
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2 Unresolved challenges for the culture and personality approach Large within-group variablity in behavior in any given culture (Kaplan, 1954; Minturn & Lambert, 1964) Cross-situational consistency in behavior for any given individual is typically quite low (Mischel, 1973) … how is describing groups in terms of broad shared traits different from using broad stereotypes for the groups?
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3 "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" (Tylor, 1871, p. 1) "a set of meanings that human beings impose on the world" (Obeyesekere, 1981, p. 110)"a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic form by means of which men [and women] communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life" (Geertz, 1973, p. 89) "The judgmental or normative dimension, which reflects social standards and values. ..the cognitive dimension, which relates to social perceptions, conceptions, attributions. .. the affective dimension, the emotional structure of a social unit, including its common feelings, sources of motivations, joy and sorrow, and sense of value. ..the skills dimension, signifying those special capabilities people develop to meet the demands of their social and technoeconomic environment. ..the technological dimension, the notion of culture as accumulated artifacts, instrumentation, and techniques" (Gordon, 1982, p. 187-188) “It includes what “has worked” in the past and can be identified by examininbeliefs, attitudes, and values, are shared and transmitted from one generation to the nextg the extent to which psychological processes, such as” (Triandis, 1997, pp. 442-443, on cultural syndromes) Some definitions of culture, both classical and modern
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4 Types of Cognitive-Affective Units (Mischel Encodings Affects Goals and Values Competencies Self-regulatory plans
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Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Situational features are encoded by a given mediating unit This initial activation spreads to a specific subset of
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08.culturaldifferences - Early approaches to the study of...

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