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10.stthreat - Stigma and attributional ambiguity(Crocker et...

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Feedback Stigma and attributional ambiguity (Crocker et al., 1991) change in self-esteem following evaluation (data for African-American P’s) change in self-esteem (pos) (neg)
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Women's self-reported depression as a function of evaluator attitudes towards women and feedback type (Crocker, Voelkl, Testa, & Major, 1991) Depression Attributional ambiguity: the self-protective role of stigma
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Research Finds Firstborns Gain the Higher I.Q. “In the study…. the researchers found that eldest children scored an average  of 103.2, about 3 percent higher than second children (100.3) and 4 percent  higher than thirdborns (99.0).” From the New York Times, June 22, 2007
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“Why do some psychologists make such a  fuss over a few I.Q. points? In this instance,  I think we’re talking about a little more  adult attention producing a slightly higher  level of verbal and mathematical ability,  which might help in school.” -Posted by P. Dorell,  NY Times forum, June 24 2007
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“ the 2.3 I.Q. points that differentiate [siblings] is equivalent to the firstborn having a 13 percent greater chance of getting into a better college… The 2.3 extra I.Q. points is approximately equivalent to scoring an extra 15 points on each SAT test, or a combined 45 points on the three current tests… The cutoffs for acceptance to the best colleges, based on SAT scores, often hinge on where one stands within a range of just 40 to 50 points on the three tests combined.” -Frank Sulloway UC Berkeley NY Times forum, June 24, 2007
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"My best guess, to provoke you, of what's behind all of this is that the largest phenomenon - by far - is the general clash between people's legitimate family desires and employers' current desire for high power and high intensity; that in the special case of science and engineering, there are issues of intrinsic aptitude, and particularly of the variability of aptitude; and that those considerations are reinforced by what are in fact lesser factors involving socialization and continuing discrimination.” Lawrence Summers, then president of Harvard, On gender-based achievement gaps
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Stereotype Threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995; Steele, 1997) -- the apprehension experienced by members of a stigmatized group that they might behave in a manner that confirms an existing cultural stereotype in a given domain
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