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Reflection for session 23 - M.Abbas Taqi Reflection paper...

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M.Abbas Taqi 2013-02-0136 Reflection paper for session 23 POL 100 Section 4 The text “Ideologies: approaches and trends” by Roger Eatwell has a very self explanatory title however this reading only covers the “approaches” part of the text; it discusses what an ideology is, how it came to assume its popular conceptions, what are the different ideologies and their criticisms etc. He divides the approach to ideology in three parts: the origins of the use of ideology, the Marxist approach to ideology, and lastly what ideology exactly is. Within the “origins” part of the text he explains how the term ideology was first coined by the French philosopher Antoine De Tracy who saw ideology as a “science of mind” meaning science of ideas constructed by the mind. However the term became associated with a negative connotation during the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and turned into a line of thinking which is divorced from reality. The great Karl Marx then added to this negative connotation of ideology by associating it with the superstructure in a bourgeois- controlled society which served to defend the ruling class i.e bourgeois. Although Marx did not consider his own work to be an “ideology”- his colleague and co-author popularized the term “scientific socialism” which unintentionally became synonymous with a specific ideology itself. Later, the founder of the Russian communist revolution Lenin accepted that ideology was not a term only for capitalist society, but can also be used for socialist movements. Other Marxists such as Antonio Gramsci had a different conception of the Marxist-materialist “ideology”. He explained that the domination of
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