Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro
‘Day-O (Banana Boat)’ by Harry Belafonte
Stack banana till de mornin' come Daylight come and me wan' go home “Got to get behind the Mule In the morning and plow” ‘Get Behind the Mule’ by Tom Waits ‘People who Died’ by Jim Carroll Band
Those are people who died, died They were all my friends, and they died Q: What are these songs about?
1 Why do we work?
Anthropology 1102, July 28, 2009 John Gordon 6488-2067 [email protected]
2 Economic Anthropology How many hours do you work? What is full-time employment? 3 Western nations avg work week
1860s = 60 hour work week 1940s = 44 hour work week 1960s = 40 hour work week 1990s = 35+ hour work week 2000s = Hours rising
4 Average Hours Per Year Worked - Anglophone OECD Nations
2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Years Australia Canada Ireland New Zealand United Kingdom United States Hours Source Swivel (http://www.swivel.com/)
5 Average Hours Per Year Worked - Australia and Selected European OECD Nations
2000 Hours France Germany Greece Sweden
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Years 1800 1600 1400 Source Swivel (http://www.swivel.com/)
6 Average Hours Per Year Worked - Australia and Region OECD Nations
3000 2500 2000 1500 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Years Australia Japan Korea Hours Source Swivel (http://www.swivel.com/)
7 Economic questions are social questions Holistic approach of anthropology 8 Economy: system for producing and distributing good and services Most production is exchanged; only a small amount is consumed directly Three types of exchange
Reciprocal Redistributive Market
Exchange goods back and forth, Goods exchanged neither through market nor administrative hierarchy Reciprocal exchange builds social ties 10 Types of reciprocal exchange
No expectation of immediate return Balanced
Explicit expectation of immediate return Negative
To take advantage by forcing exchange
11 !Kung Bushmen of southern Africa
Richard Lee Societies become larger; exchange becomes less direct 12 Capitalism
Private ownership of means of production Work force sells its labour in open market Hierarchical control of decision making Individual incentives for material gain 13 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation Economy submerged in social relations Social interests govern economic interests ‘No economy prior to our own was controlled and regulated by markets’ 14 Economy will run on noneconomic motives Profit seeking not a ‘natural’ behaviour What motivates people to work? Reciprocity and redistribution Economy is a function of social system 15 Our economy is different due to
self-regulating market, in which all production is for sale all incomes derive from such sales 16 Price of labour?
Wages Price of land?
Rent Price of money?
Interest Prices form incomes
17 Interest <-> Money Rent <-> Land Wages <-> Labour Commodity = item produced for sale 18 Labour = life itself Land = nature Money = token of purchasing power 19 Fictitious commodities Human society becomes accessory to economic system Polanyi: “Double movement”
Tension between regulation & deregulation Michael Taussig, The Devil and commodity fetishism in South America
20 Devil’s contract
To increase productivity Money earned is barren Made only by wage labourers, not peasants Baptised banknotes
Return to owner with more money
21 Reciprocal exchange
Wealth produced collectively Labour not sold for wages Decision making not hierarchical No differential rewards 22 Marshall Sahlins
1972 "The Original Affluent Society“ Two roads to affluence
Produce more Desire less 23 Hunter-gatherer desired little, lived in abundance Bushmen worked 15 hours a week Why are our working hours rising? 24 ...
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