9 - 250809 - Today’s Music Intro ‘A Rose in Spanish...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro ‘A Rose in Spanish Harlem’ by Aretha Franklin There is a rose in Spanish Harlem A red rose up in Spanish Harlem It is a special one, it's never seen the sun It only comes out when the moon is on the run ‘My Island Home’ by Christine Anu Six years I have been in the city And every night I dream of the sea They say home is where you find it Will this place ever satisfy me From Colonialism to Globalisation Assoc Prof Martin Forsey Anth 1102 Global Change, Local Responses From Colonialism 1900 1950 2009 Imagine discovering an island Rationalising Colonialism Social Darwinism - the application of the concept of evolution to the historical development of human societies which lays particular emphasis on “the struggle for existence” and “the survival of the fittest”. Civilising process The White Man’s Burden Decolonisation Schultz and Lavenda 2009, p.95 ‘Decolonization allowed anthropologists to pay direct attention to colonialism as a form of political domination that eliminated the autonomy of indigenous social groups and forcibly restructured them into subordinate positions within a larger entity’ From Colonialism … To Globalisation 1900 1950 2009 Imagine discovering an island In this lecture • Modernisation and Development – Rationale & Critique • • • • • Postcolonialism Creation of the Third World Dependency and Underdevelopment World Systems Theory Globalisation Banana producing regions of the world ‘Banana plantations offer monotonous, isolated landscapes’. (Bourgois 1989, p.3) Source www.apsnet.org/.../plantdis mgmt/text/fig15.htm Historical Structural Political Economic Modernisation A theory that argues that the social change occurring in non-Western societies under colonial rule was necessary and inevitable prelude to higher levels of social development that had been reached by more “modern” nations (Schultz and Lavenda 2005, p. 360-361). • Extended beyond colonial rule into the post WWII period • Continuous with Darwinist/Unilineal Evolutionary Beliefs • Post WWII Welfarism – planned improvement Migrants Refugees Colonialism Post WWII Developments Globalisation Independence Post colonialism Economic Boom Cold war The Creation of the Third World - Development Postcolonialism • The period after colonialism? • A literary movement ‘Not a naïve teleological sequence which supersedes colonialism, postcolonialism is, rather, an engagement with and contestation of colonialism's discourses, power structures, and social hierarchies’ (Gilbert and Tonkins 1996 Post-colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics) . • What does it mean to call Australia postcolonial? Classifying the World • First World - refers to so called developed, capitalist, industrial countries. Nations aligned with the political and economic interests of the United States (North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, etc) • Second World - refers to the communistsocialist, industrial states (Russia, Eastern Europe, Kazakhstan, China etc) • Third World – originally non-aligned nations (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait Libya, Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore, Haiti, Chad, Afghanistan etc) – 1952 "tiers monde“, Alfred Sauvy – 1956 “Bandung conference”, Afro-Asian nations Common Usage • Third World – high rates of illiteracy, disease, population growth. – technologically less “advanced”, developing, or poor nations of Asia, Africa (sub-Saharan), and Latin America, – economies distorted by their dependence on the export of primary products to the developed countries in return for finished products. • Fourth World - widely unknown nations or cultural entities of indigenous peoples, living within or across state boundaries (Nyungah nation, Comanche nation, Kung! etc) The Social Construction of Third World Nations… Economies changed by their dependence on the export of primary products to the developed countries in return for finished products. From Subsistence economies (reciprocal & redistributive) to market economy Centralised control Increasing dependency Post World War II • Capitalist structures ingrained in 3rd World Economies • Increasing importation of Western goods and values • Large loans from World Bank and multinational banks • Financing imports and servicing loans increased production for export • Further loss of autonomy, resource base (Kohr 1999) Dependency Theories • Main theorists: – Baran, Dos Santos, Frank, Cardoso • Economic and political domination by richer capitalist nations – Systematic extraction of surplus (periphery core) • Rooted in colonialism – Extracting commodities – Causing impoverishment – Destruction of existing economic, political and cultural infrastructures Dependency Theory • Continued reliance on first world capital investment, aid and protection • The solution? – Isolate from global capitalism - socialism The Underdevelopment of Development - Frank • Focus on Latin America – When tied into global capitalism the region’s economies stagnated or worse • Before there was development there was no underdevelopment • Reinforcement of the economic dependence of poorer, peripheral nations on the metropoles World System Theory • The Modern World System I (1974) • Intellectual Biography: http://www.yale.edu/sociology/ faculty/pages/wallerstein/ • The world-system as a unit of analysis, • Social science must be simultaneously historic and systemic World System Theory • A developed form of Underdevelopment/Dependency theory • Empires = a system of government commercial monopolies combined with the use of force, directing the flow of economic goods from the periphery to the centre • Core – NW Europe – strong central governments, – extensive bureaucracies, – large mercenary armies (state controlled later) • Periphery – no central governments or controlled by other states, – exported raw materials to the core, – relied on coercive labour practices • Semi-periphery – declining cores (Spain, Portugal) and emerging cores (Brazil, Mexico – India, China?) • Capitalist world economy = continued economic growth Problems with Dependency & WST Dependency approaches allow us to recognise structural influences on poverty – it doesn’t just happen However, … • Too general • Too structural • Focused more on what is wrong than what can be done • Economic success of ‘Asian Tiger’ economies – (Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore) • Coincidence of wealth and poverty in ALL nations Culture Structure Agency WST as… • Precursor to Globalisation Theories? Is globalisation a form of neo-colonialism or is something different going on here? ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course ANTH 1101 taught by Professor Watts during the Spring '11 term at Texas Brownsville.

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