Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro
Music from the Solomon Islands
‘Sore Gizo’ by Sharzy ‘Mi Nao’ by Sharzy Sharzy (Samson Allan
Saeni) is the best known musician from the Solomon Islands and is well known throughout Melanesia (Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia) and other areas of Oceania. He is from the island of Simbo and his father from the island of Malaita. Sharzy told me about his vision for his country, its youth, what inspired him and why he could never separate these from his music. He says what was foremost on his mind when he first started writing and performing was acknowledging the pain of the nation as it recovered from the violent and bloody ethnic tensions earlier this decade. --Interview with Clement Paligaru, ABC Radio Australia, My Pacific Story http://mypacificstory.com/2008/07/musical-healing-in-solomon-islands/ "Wan" from "Umi Flow" Album (his fifth album) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k05vuofdbnY Mi Nao
Iu stap long aelan, farawe Iu Across the ocean away from me Livem mi lonely, oh baby why nao? No mata who se, mi still blong iu Mi laetem faia, sidaon long beach Saon blong waves, mekem mi sore tu Briz long nait spoelem maen blong mi Ae ting bae mi no lukim iu nao Chorus Wea nao, wea nao Mi mi wetim iu Mi nao, mi nao Mi tingim iu (from album Aelan Wei) You live on an island, far away Across the ocean away from me Leaving me lonely, oh baby why? No matter what they say, you still belong to me. I light a fire, sit down on the beach The sound of the waves makes me sorry The breeze in the night is confusing me I think that I’m not going to see you Chorus Where, where I’m, I’m waiting for you It’s me, it’s me I’m missing you http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oJy_rfTfiw Online Quiz 1 available from Wednesday, Sept. 2nd @ 6.00am Must be completed before Sunday, Sept. 20th @ midnight 20 questions, time limit: 2 hours 2 attempts allowed. Value: 2.5% Online Quiz 2 after Major Essay due. University requirement: IRIS
All new students this semester must complete IRIS before Sept. 11 Follow links through WebCT Globalization and Dilemmas of Globalization Development in the Pacific Islands ANTH 1102 1 September 2009 Dr. Debra McDougall Anthropology & Sociology, UWA [email protected] View from Ranongga Island to Gizo and Kolombangara, Western Province, Solomon Islands, 1999 • Who are the winners and • • who are the losers in globalization? How do we define culture and property in an age of globalization? How might people resist or benefit from ‘development’? Image, Google Earth Language and culture areas of the Pacific Language Micronesia • Case studies from
Micronesia and Melanesia
– Similarities • Relative remoteness • Territory valued as site Melanesia • of history and memory Recent large-scale transformation of environment – Differences • Land area • Degree of autonomy in
dealing with agents of globalization The Oceanic Lexicon Project, Department of Linguistics, RSPAS, ANU rspas.anu.edu.au/ linguistics/oceanic/intro.html. Case studies
Nuclear testing Marshall Islands Resource extraction Mining in Papua New Guinea Logging in the Solomon Islands Image, Google Earth Mushroom cloud from the largest nuclear test the United States ever conducted, Castle Bravo. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Castle_Bravo_Blast.jpg Nuclear testing in Marshall Islands Nuclear • Between 1946 – 1958, 150+ bombs were detonated • “Fundamental incommensurability between what was taken and what might be given back” (Kirsch, p. 171)
Bravo was 1,000 times more powerful than Hiroshima Material consequences Material • Radiation sickness, birth defects • Exile and starvation in unfamiliar atolls • Long-term poisoning of environment
– Dependence on imported food leading to diabetes, heart disease, etc.
Bikini Atoll, with Bikini Island boxed in the northeast. The crater formed by the Castle Bravo nuclear test can be seen on the northwest cape of the atoll.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bikini_Atoll “Culture” loss?
• Emplaced historical •
memory, e.g., ancestral graves and mythical sites Culturally specific ideas about how identity results from eating the food of one’s home island Transmission of knowledge
– Canoe-making, pandanus weaving • Marshall Islands - Majuro – Burial grounds
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Marshall_Islands_-_Majuro_-_Burial_grounds.jpg Cultural property? Cultural
• “What are the kinds of
– Possessions? – Relationships? things that can be lost”? (168) • How can such things be claimable in the Western court of law? A traditional outrigged canoe, Marshall Islands, 1920
http://www.janeresture.com/canoes/index.htm • Does this “deepen the
hegemony”? (p. 181) – Is culture as analogous to “property”? – Is property only that which can be bought and sold on a market? – What about valuable things outside of markets? Consequences of defining culture Consequences
• Defining culture as a process, a mode of
living that is adaptive and changing, may make it impossible to claim that culture is ever lost • How context-dependent is culture?
– If you leave your home, do you lose your culture? Lihir (New Ireland) Ok-Tedi (Western) Porgera (Enga) Paguna (Bougainville) Mining in Papua New Guinea Mining • Resource extraction produces winners and
– “Failed states” correlate with resource dependent economies – Create enclaves of wealth amidst poverty Mining in PNG
• Customary owners
have legal rights in PNG • Services and infrastructure not provided by the state • Loss of subsistence is a trade-off many are willing to make
Porgera gold mine, 2001 Bougainville Bougainville
Panguna Mine - Operation Bel Isi
http://www.opbelisi.com/images/Photos/Panguna/pages/Mine%201.html • Inadequate consultation and compensation • Indigenous resistance shut the mine • Ten-year secessionist war Lihir
A woman prepares the soil for yam planting on Masahet Island in the Lihir Group, PNG. Subsistence farming in most parts of the Western Pacific is highly labourintensive, with most of the work done by women. A Lihirian woman carrying a heavy load of yams and firewood. Melanesian women routinely carry loads in excess of 25kg long distances between subsistence gardens and their villages. Many have compressed upper vertebral discs by the time they are in their 30s as a result. From Foale & Macintyre, 2005, “Green Fantasies.” Tailings in Fly River
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:Fly_River_Tailings_ Disaster.jpg Satellite image and map Ok Tedi River
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ok_Tedi BHP Billiton at Ok-Tedi BHP
• Inadequate tailings dam sent • • •
cyanide contaminated water throughout the river system Environment downstream devastated and residents were not getting any royalties Unmitigated, unchosen loss Recourse in Canadian and Australian courts against BHP (Kirsch) Logging in the Solomon Islands Logging “Compressed globalization” Marovo lagoon Does engaging the global economy Does lead to..
• “a condition of internal dispute among all and •
conspicuous consumption by some” OR The development of institutions that are competent in “dealing with agents of wider economic and political worlds, from foundations in strengthened local culture” It depends…in part on indigenous institutions
Edvard Hviding, 2003, Contested rainforests, NGOs, and projects of desire in Solomon Islands. International Social Science Journal 55(4):543. Christian Fellowship Church Christian Indigenous church in North New Georgia whose leader combines religious and economic authority Christian Fellowship Church Worship service, March 2007 Large scale copra plantations built in the 1950s, with a model village “Paradise” CFC Church at Paradise was once the largest pandanus leaf house structure in the country Road and oil palm plantation, Duvaha, North New Georgia, March 2007 Development is first, religion is second.
The Spiritual Authority explained: “If we pray all the time and don’t bother working, we will steal from others and (thus) steal from God and break his commandments. If we go to pray but can not afford clothes for worship, God is irritated.” A CFC pastor later speculated, “Imagine if God was a man he wouldn’t want to hear a lot of crying and begging all of the time. If we pray to God for all of his angels to come down to earth and then they do actually show up, how on earth will we feed them all? Do we have houses to accommodate them?” Duvaha’s canal system and canoes belonging to the Spiritual Authority Since the Company Since Came (2000) (2000)
• Strife and division in a • •
Rendova community affected by logging Unequal distribution of benefits even within a community Loss of resources and culture
– Decline in authority of chief – Identity connected to land What do people want?
• Does globalization provide new means to old ends?
– Case of CFC – “affluent subsistence” from a strengthened traditional culture (Hviding) • Or, does it create new, unsatisfiable consumerist
– – Case of Rendova “The simplicity of village life that attracts jaded Europeans …is precisely what drives discontented Melanesian youth into towns in search of work, money, and the excitement of urban existence” (Foale and Macintyre, p. 161) http://www.sciencelives.com/graphics/logging-log-pile.jpg • Who are the winners and • • who are the losers in globalization? How might people resist or benefit from ‘development’? How do we define culture and property in an age of globalization?
– Can culture be lost? Image, Google Earth Sources / Further reading & viewing Sources
Carrucci, Laurence Marshall “The Transformation of Person and Place on Enewetak and Ujelang Atoll,” In Globalization and Culture Change in the Pacific Islands. V. Lockwood, ed. Pp. . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Foale, Simon J. 2002 "Where's our Development?" Landowner aspirations and environmentalist agendas in Western Solomon Islands. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 2:44-67. Foale, Simon, and Martha Macintyre 2005 Green Fantasies: Photographic representations of biodiversity and ecotourism. Journal of Political Ecology 12:122. Hviding, Edvard 1996 Guardians of the Marovo Lagoon: Practice, Place, and Politics in Maritime Melanesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. — 2003 Contested rainforests, NGOs, and projects of desire in Solomon Islands. International Social Science Journal 55(4):539-554. Kirsch, S. 2001 Environmental disaster, "Culture loss," and the law. Current Anthropology 42(2):167-198. ---. 2002 Anthropology and advocacy - A case study of the campaign against the Ok Tedi mine. Critique of Anthropology 22(2):175-200. Macintyre, Martha, and Simon Foale 2004b Global imperatives and local desires: Competing economic and environmental interests in Melanesian communities. In Globalization and Culture Change in the Pacific Islands. V. Lockwood, ed. Pp. 149-164. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Sahlins, Marshall 1972 The Original Affluent Society. In Stone Age Economics. Pp. 1-40. Chicago,: AldineAtherton. Films: Hawkins, Russell 2003 Since the company came. East Molesey, Surrey, UK: New South Wales Film and Television Office, SBS Independent, Journeyman Pictures. O’Rourke, Dennis 1986 Half life: A parable for the nuclear age. Los Angeles: Direct Cinema, Ltd. ...
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- Spring '11
- Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Melanesia, Marshall Islands, Bikini Atoll