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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro
Solomon Islands — Cry of the Ancestors by Narasirato Pan Pipers
Wawasitani Mato Are Inau Mairao Assessment
Must complete Online Quiz 1 by Sunday, 20th midnight. 1st essays returned in tuts this week Research essay due Friday, Oct. 2nd Must have at least 3 academic refs
Not used in tut readings Not taken from dictionary /encyclopaedia May cite texts, but not as 1 of 3 Since the Company Came
Kinship & Gender: matrilineal, power of women
‘Men don’t understand this, women do.’ ‘Women have power of land.’ Generational change: Chief v Chairman
Chief (elder) bemoans lost ways, Young Chairman angrily berates Chief Alternative to logging
PNG: Selling carbon credits To save rainforests ‘mani bilong skai’, money from sky Is carbon
A mineral, & therefore belongs to state Or part of a tree, & belongs to land owner? Local & Global Patterns of Migration
Anth 1102 Lecture 13 Local & Global Patterns of Migration Martin Forsey
15 September, 2009 David Moore, Sydney 1966 If you leave your home do you lose your culture? Can you lose it? Should you? Local & Global Patterns of Migration David Moore, Sydney 1966 Culture
• Patterns of learned behavior and ideas acquired by people as members of society. • Emphasise – “Shared and learned” • Habitus – internalised behaviours and ideas (dispositions) • Time and place – people born in the same dimensions likely to share more in common than persons born in other times, other places • We modify our heritage • We re-produce culture • “Humans make history but not in circumstances of their choosing” Cultural Production Theory
Bourgois ISOR An analytical framework restoring the agency of culture and the autonomy of individuals … to a political economy understanding of the experience of persistent poverty and social marginalization in the urban United States (p.14). Aims at avoiding reductionist, structuralist interpretations. Through cultural practices of opposition, individuals shape the oppression that larger forces impose upon them (p.17).
CULTURE, STRUCTURE, AGENCY Local and Global Patterns of Migration
• What is migration? • Shifts in migration patterns and policies – Australian case study
– – – – – Settlement to Guest Workers White Australia Assimilation/Integration Multiculturalism Business/Skilled migration • Migration and work
– The flow of people and capital • Migration and social theory
– Materialist versus Culturalist Perspectives – Structural functionalist versus conflict perspectives – Cultural production theory (Practice theory) Migration
• Population redistribution in geographical space • Change of residence that is intended to be long term or permanent • Reasons to migrate?
– Opportunity – Escape – Something to do/excitement? • The century of the migrant?
‘perhaps there have never been so many people who end up elsewhere than they began, whether by choice or necessity’ (Rushdie 1987). ‘the 19th Century represents a far more active period of voluntary migration than the 20th Century…’ (Holmes, Hughes & Julien p.474). The Long Boom
• Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") • 1947-1973 • Welfare state – Keynesian economics (redistributive) • Marshall plan – rebuilding Europe • Free trade • Labour shortage in “the West” 3 Main Forms of Migration
1945 to 1970s (Post WWII) 1. The migration of workers from the European periphery to Western Europe, often through ‘guest worker systems’. 2. The migration of ‘colonial workers’ to the former colonial powers. 3. Permanent migration to the United States, Canada and Australia – settler nations. Guest worker system
• Wirtschaftswunder ("economic miracle") – full employment • Gastarbeiter (guest worker) programme • Initially recruited from Mediterranean – Italy, Greece • Mid 1960s Turks in West Germany • 1973: Moratorium on Recruitment (Oil crisis) • Late 70s: Family reunion program, sharp increase in Turkish women migrants – electronics, textile and service work. • 1989 Removal of the Berlin Wall – intense debates about national identity, citizenship Colonial workers
Ch 2 ISOR To summarize, New York-born Puerto Ricans are the descendants of an uprooted people in the midst of a marathon sprint through economic history. In diverse permutations over the past two or three generations their parents and grandparents went from 1. Semi-subsistence peasants 2. Agricultural laborers 3. Factory workers in shantytowns 4. Sweat-shop workers in ghetto tenements 5. Service sector employees in high-rise inner city housing projects 6. Underground economy entrepreneurs on the street (pp 51-52) Colonial workers
• • • • • • • • Of particular relevance to Britain, France and the Netherlands. Persons in former colonies deemed citizens Post WWII Labour shortage – manufacturing Initially Italy and Poland West Indies, India, African colonies 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act The passport holders kept coming (some of them at least) Intense debates about national identity and citizenship Settler Migration – North America and Australia
• • • • Post war economic booms Australia - populate or perish White Australia policy Racial hierarchy – British, Irish, North European, Mediterranean, East-European migrants • Melting of the colour line Push-Pull Factors
Sending countries Stagnant economies High unemployment Foreign exchange from workers’ remittances
Homo economicus? Economic determinism Structural determinism The agency of the migrant? Receiving countries Strong economy Ample employment in low-skilled manufacturing sector GLOBALIZATION
Guest Workers Capital
Money Knowledge/Ideas Political/ Structural Technology Goods
Essential Luxury “Cultural”
“Lifestyles” Refugees Tourists Sport Mobility of Capital
TNCs scan the globe for the cheapest locations to put their factories while also striving to capture consumer markets for goods. With the exception of some of those in professional employment, individual workers are more or less locked into their country of birth A new inequality is the difference between the enormous mobility of capital and the relative immobility of labour (Holmes, Hughes and Julian, p.476). It is a mistake to ignore structural effects on individual lives Controlling Migrants
• • • • The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 (Australia) Assimilation/Integration policies Multiculturalism Immigration now
– Employer sponsored – Skilled migration – Business People • From Race to Class? Structural Control Admission Impossible (1992)– a film by Alec Morgan
This compelling program documents the shifts and upheavals in the government's resolve to keep Australia 'white' and 'European'. It includes eyewitness accounts and recently discovered confidential documents that reveal how immigration officers carried out racial selectivity following examination by medical officers for signs of 'color'. Over subsequent years, Australian governments gradually dismantled the policy, with the final vestiges officially being removed in 1973 by the Whitlam government. An increase in the number and percentage of migrants from nonEuropean countries did not take place until after the Fraser government came to office in 1975. Film available in closed reserve Cultural Controls
• Bourgois – “Violating Apartheid in the United States p.28 To borrow the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s analytical category, Ray lacked the cultural capital necessary to succeed in the middle-class – or even workingclass – world. Cultural Capital
• Distinction and taste • Cultural Capital
– Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) ‘the attitudes and ways of behaviour accepted and even expected by the dominant groups of society. These are internalized values, which manifest themselves in suitable manners, good taste, language use, special skills and abilities and competence’ Disrespect and Resistance
‘Workers like Caesar and Primo appear inarticulate to their professional supervisors when they try to imitate the language of power in the workplace ..their interpersonal skills are even more inadequate than their limited professional capacities. They do not know how to look at their fellow service workers – let alone their supervisors – without intimidating them. They cannot walk down the hallway to the water fountain without unconsciously swaying their shoulders aggressively as if patrolling their home turf (pp.142-143) Lacking Cultural Capital? DIFFERENT CULTURAL CAPITAL? Culture and Human Agency
• Patterns of learned behavior and ideas acquired by people as members of society. • Emphasise – “Shared and learned” • Habitus – internalised behaviours and ideas (dispositions) • Time and place – people born in the same dimensions likely to share more in common than persons born in other times, other places • We modify our heritage • We re-produce culture • “Humans make history but not in circumstances of their choosing” • Our agency is always cultured • Our agency is always structured • CULTURAL PRODUCTION THEORY/PRACTICE THEORY If you leave your home do you lose your culture? Can you lose it? Should you? Local & Global Patterns of Migration David Moore, Sydney 1966 Today’s Music Conclusion
Bob Dylan’s ‘I Pity the Poor Immigrant’
I pity the poor immigrant Who wishes he would've stayed home, Who uses all his power to do evil But in the end is always left so alone. That man whom with his fingers cheats And who lies with ev'ry breath, Who passionately hates his life And likewise, fears his death. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course ANTH 1101 taught by Professor Watts during the Spring '11 term at Texas Brownsville.
- Spring '11