14 - 170909 - Today’s Music Intro Bob Dylan’s ‘I Pity...

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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro Bob Dylan’s ‘I Pity the Poor Immigrant’ I pity the poor immigrant Who wishes he would've stayed home, Who uses all his power to do evil But in the end is always left so alone. That man whom with his fingers cheats And who lies with ev'ry breath, Who passionately hates his life And likewise, fears his death. Anth 1102 Lecture 14 Local & Global Patterns of Migration II Martin Forsey 17 September 2009 From a PhD Thesis Study of Hungarian migrants in Australia Finally we have to learn to think globally. Let’s create the globalism of Hungarianness. Globalisation or Transnationalism? Transnationalism Multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation-states. Historical phenomenon HOWEVER New technologies, especially in telecommunications, serve to connect such networks with increasing speed and efficiency. ‘Transnationalism describes a condition in which, despite great distances and notwithstanding the presence of international borders (and all the laws, regulations and national narratives they represent), certain kinds of relationships have been globally intensified and now take place paradoxically in a planet-spanning yet common— however virtual—arena of activity’ (Vertovec 1999, p.447) Vertovec, S. 1999. “Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism”. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2):447-462. Push-Pull Factors Sending countries Stagnant economies High unemployment Foreign exchange from workers’ remittances Homo economicus? Economic determinism Structural determinism The agency of the migrant? Receiving countries Strong economy Ample employment in low-skilled manufacturing sector GLOBALIZATION Movement/flow People Migrants Settlers Guest Workers Capital Money Knowledge/Ideas Political/ Structural Technology Goods Essential Luxury “Cultural” Arts Religion “Lifestyles” Refugees Tourists Sport Mobility of Capital TNCs scan the globe for the cheapest locations to put their factories while also striving to capture consumer markets for goods. With the exception of some of those in professional employment, individual workers are more or less locked into their country of birth A new inequality is the difference between the enormous mobility of capital and the relative immobility of labour (Holmes, Hughes and Julian, p.476). It is a mistake to ignore structural effects on individual lives Controlling Migrants • • • • The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 (Australia) Assimilation/Integration policies Multiculturalism Immigration now – Employer sponsored – Skilled migration – Business People • From Race to Class? Structural Control Cultural Controls • Bourgois – “Violating Apartheid in the United States p.28 To borrow the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s analytical category, Ray lacked the cultural capital necessary to succeed in the middle-class – or even workingclass – world. Cultural Capital • Distinction and taste • Cultural Capital – Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002) ‘the attitudes and ways of behaviour accepted and even expected by the dominant groups of society. These are internalized values, which manifest themselves in suitable manners, good taste, language use, special skills and abilities and competence’ Disrespect and Resistance ‘Workers like Caesar and Primo appear inarticulate to their professional supervisors when they try to imitate the language of power in the workplace ..their interpersonal skills are even more inadequate than their limited professional capacities. They do not know how to look at their fellow service workers – let alone their supervisors – without intimidating them. They cannot walk down the hallway to the water fountain without unconsciously swaying their shoulders aggressively as if patrolling their home turf (pp.142-143) Lacking Cultural Capital? DIFFERENT CULTURAL CAPITAL? Culture and Human Agency • Patterns of learned behavior and ideas acquired by people as members of society. • Emphasise – “Shared and learned” • Habitus – internalised behaviours and ideas (dispositions) • Time and place – people born in the same dimensions likely to share more in common than persons born in other times, other places • We modify our heritage • We re-produce culture • “Humans make history but not in circumstances of their choosing” • Our agency is always cultured • Our agency is always structured • CULTURAL PRODUCTION THEORY/PRACTICE THEORY Australian Immigration • Immigration (in migration) • 50 000 BP – From SE Asia • Colonial migration 1788-1901 – Convicts and free settlers – Gold rushes 1850s – Attracting women 1860s – 1920s • Post-federation migration – Immigration Restriction Act 1901 • Post-WW II Boom – Assisted passage – Skilled streams, family streams, humanitarian programmes Year Book Australia, 2008 • Since 1945, around 6.5 million people have come to Australia as new settlers • 24% of Australians born overseas • 73% of overseas born residents are Australian citizens • People from over 200 countries live in Australia • 16% of Australians >5 yrs speak LOTE • 37% of the population identify their ancestry as Australian. 32% identify as English, 9% as Irish, 8% Scottish. • 64% of Australians identified themselves as Christians At the birth of the nation… Source: Monash University, Federation Images Protectionism • Materialist versus Culturalist perspectives • Australia’s “cult of protectionism” (Hancock 1930) • Economic Tariffs Labour – “The Working Man’s Paradise” • Racist Culture (Goldberg 1993) “Australia for the White Man” Aboriginal Protectionism Immigration Restriction Act 1901 Immigration Restriction Act • ‘The White Australia Policy’ • Restriction of non-European migrants Initial drafts called for a straight ban Dictation test – 50 words in any European language • Significance of labour Chinese in the Gold Rushes Kanak labour • Racial beliefs Crimson thread of kinship Fear of ‘pollution’ through miscegenation The yellow peril Charter Group The founding national group British and Irish Anglo-celtic Australians Source: Monash University, Federation Images Further Legislation 1904-14 Assisted passages free land offered to settlers 1922 Empire Settlement Act. Government assistance to preferred migrants 1925 Immigration Act amendment power to exclude those unlikely to be readily assimilable 1947 Assisted passages to particular groups Post WW II Boom • • • • Immigration Ministry “Populate or perish” Development & Nation Building Ethnic Preference Hierarchy 1. British 2. Northern Europe 3. Eastern/Southern Europe • Opposition from organised labour ‘Beautiful Balts’ source: Discovering Democracy Assimilationism • 1945-1960s • A process by which immigrants are expected to shed the cultural beliefs and practices of their homeland in favour of those of their host nation • Preserving homogeneity • Borrowed from the USA • Instant response – “New Australians” to take on the Australian Way of Life Arthur Calwell with the 50,000th European migrant, 1949 Source: Discovering Democracy Newsletter 2002 If you leave your home do you lose your culture? Can you lose it? Should you? Australian Multiculturalism • Labor Government 1972-1975 • ‘A Multi-Cultural Society for the Future’ (Grasby 1973) • Borrowed from Canada • Racial Discrimination Act 1975 • Continued by Successive Governments Are there any cultural/ethnic groups that do not fit into Australian society? State/Territory NSW Qld Vic SA ACT NT Tas Perth Yes (Percentage) 46.6 42 35.9 40.1 28.2 35.3 41 45.4 Kevin Dunn, University of Western Sydney Challenging Racism: The Anti-Racism Research Project Results released Friday 3 October Social structures – Racist culture – education, employment, a significant legal system – discriminate proportion of for and against particular the Charter groups Group are Structure socialised Culture towards believing in Individual White superiority and that racialised others naturally occupy other Agency economic niches What is the relationship between nationalism, migration and racism? What is at stake then, is a reconfiguration of Australian nationalism, from its earlier, racially exclusionary form – the nation as ‘one’ – to a new, inclusive and open-ended form: the nation as a porous container of multiple, criss-crossing, intersecting flows of different peoples and cultures Ang, cited in H, H & J, p.181) Ien Ang Professor of Cultural Studies, and Director of the Centre for Cultural Research at the University of Western Syndey Explaining Australia’s Immigration Policy development Evolution of a more enlightened society? The pragmatic responses of an essentially racist society to better help meet economic needs? What drives the changes? Humanitarian desire Economic desire – looking after self Racial ideology Historical and social realities Your view of humanity - Self interested or altruistic? Is there space for hope? ...
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