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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro
‘Streets of Philadelphia’ by Bruce Springsteen ‘Dunia Dudumizi’ by X Plastaz The first big budget Hollywood film to depict HIV/AIDS. A homosexual lawyer infected with AIDS is fired from his conservative law firm in fear that they might contract AIDS from him.
I was bruised and battered and I couldn’t tell What I felt I was unrecognizable to myself I saw my reflection in a window I didn’t know My own face Oh brother are you gonna leave me Wastin´away On the streets of Philadelphia I walked the avenue till my legs felt like stone I heard the voices of friends vanished and gone At night I could hear the blood in my veins Black and whispering as the rain On the streets of Philadelphia Streets of Philadelphia by Bruce Springsteen 1993 Maasai hiphop from Tanzania, East Africa http://www.xplastaz.com/ The Swahili rap lyrics relate to topics like AIDS and unemployment The next two lectures
• Use health (including disease, illness and health care) as a case study to explore various dimensions of globalization • Explore the effects of globalization on health, specifically in relation to the growing inequality across the globe Today’s lecture
• Health and globalization case study
– Is globalization ‘new’? If so what processes make globalization new? – How does the migration of people (and people carrying disease) illustrate the interconnectedness between processes of globalization and global health? – What are some of the positive and negative effects of these processes? Globalization
• No single agreed upon definition • Processes that intensify worldwide social relations and interdependence (Giddens 1991)
– Coming together of political, social, cultural and economic factors – Makes possible the rapid movement of people, ideas, goods, services, money, and information across the globe in an increasingly short period of time. The global spread of disease
Communicable diseases are the quintessential example of a health threat that respects no borders The Black Death
• The bubonic plague (black death) was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350 • Estimated to have killed 30-60% of Europe’s population
The Plague 1898 by Arnold Böcklin, Kunstmuseum, Basel http://www.insecta-inspecta.com/fleas/bdeath/Path.html Disease and colonization > globalisation
• Impacts of introduced diseases (infectious and non-communicable) • Patterns repeated in the process of globalization
– HIV/AIDS in the developing world – Introduction of ‘Western ways’, eg. cigarette smoking, poor diet and sedentarism, decline in human lactation Urbanization goes hand in hand with globalization How is globalization new?
• Changing concepts of space and time • Increasing volume of cultural interactions • Commonality of problems facing the worlds inhabitants • Growing interconnections and interdependencies • Network of increasingly powerful transnational actors and organizations • Synchronization of all dimensions involved in globalization GLOBALIZATION
Guest Workers Capital
Money Knowledge/Ideas Political/ Structural Technology Goods
Essential Luxury “Cultural”
“Lifestyles” Refugees Tourists Sport GLOBALIZATION
Guest Workers Refugees Tourists The spread of newly emerging infectious diseases is due in large part to the global movement of people due to migration, business and tourism The movement of people?
• Are the people who are moving infected with potentially hazardous microrganisms? • What about the illegal trafficking of humans? • What about the international trade in body organs for transplantation? Movement and disease
• SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), the first major lethal infection to emerge in the 21st century (2003-2004)
– Mortality statistics relatively low – Disproportionate economic impact
• US $30-100 billion or around US $3-10 million per case – Raised perception of risk in relation to new infectious disease – Containment ranged from traditional public health measures to electronic surveillance ironically made possible by the effects of globalization Trafficking people
• Irregular migration (trafficking)
– Those trafficked are expected to engage in forced domestic labour, sex work, false marriages and indentured labour. – At any one time there is an estimated 15-30 million irregular migrants worldwide (International Organisation for Migration 2006) – Journeys of trafficked (and smuggled) people often involve health threats like drowning, suffocation, prolonged exposure to heat and cold, starvation and injury International trade in body organs
• An anthropologist not afraid of ‘public anthropology’ • ‘The organs trade is extensive, lucrative, explicitly illegal in most countries, and unethical according to every governing body of medical professional life’. Anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes, heads an organization called Organ Watch Nancy wins the day!
• Anthropologist's 'Dick Tracy moment' • Scheper-Hughes met with FBI agents and explained how Levy Rosenbaum was the ‘thug’ who trafficked in human kidneys.
Levy Rosenbaum Hagen for News Friday, July 24th 2009 Summary
• Globalization in the 21st Century is breaking down economic, political, cultural, social, demographic, and symbolic barriers across the world at a pace hitherto unseen in the history of the world • The implications for health are numerous
– Communicable and non-communicable diseases – Movement of people is particularly implicated in the spread of communicable diseases – Disease is always socially and culturally mediated • Next lecture: focus upon the inequalities associated with global health ...
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- Spring '11