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Unformatted text preview: Today’s Music Intro
‘Streets of Philadelphia’ by Bruce Springsteen ‘Dunia Dudumizi’ by X Plastaz The first big budget Hollywood film to depict HIV/AIDS. A homosexual lawyer infected with AIDS is fired from his conservative law firm in fear that they might contract AIDS from him.
I was bruised and battered and I couldn’t tell What I felt I was unrecognizable to myself I saw my reflection in a window I didn’t know My own face Oh brother are you gonna leave me Wastin´away On the streets of Philadelphia I walked the avenue till my legs felt like stone I heard the voices of friends vanished and gone At night I could hear the blood in my veins Black and whispering as the rain On the streets of Philadelphia Streets of Philadelphia by Bruce Springsteen 1993 Maasai hiphop from Tanzania, East Africa http://www.xplastaz.com/ The Swahili rap lyrics relate to topics like AIDS and unemployment Announcements
No lectures or tutorials next week! Research essay due Friday, Oct. 2nd Must have at least 3 academic refs
Not used in tut readings Not taken from dictionary /encyclopaedia May cite texts, but not as 1 of 3 Read Chap 14, Schultz & Lavenda, ‘A Global World’ (will help w tuts wk 11 & final exam) Globalization and Health Last lecture
• Globalization is the outcome of a long evolutionary PROCESS, but the more recent global interconnectedness and interdependency is unprecedented in human history
– Bubonic plague > HIV/AIDS > 21st Century infectious diseases (SARS, Avian Influenza and H1N1) • Increasing global movement of people leads to unprecedented health risk
– Infectious disease; trauma, dislocation, injury – Both voluntary and involuntary movement brings health risks – Can lead to global inequality and exploitation of the poor by the rich ?????????
• Why was there such a huge economic impact from the SARS outbreak? • What is wrong with commodifying the body and selling off your kidneys? Today’s lecture
• Consider the flow of capital in relation to globalization and health
– Global tobacco production and use and the role of transnational corporations – The production of pharmaceuticals and their role in the developing world • Illustrate the intersection of global flow of capital and the flow of socio-cultural ideas and beliefs (Westernization) • Demonstrate the health disparities between the richer and poorer countries in relation to health GLOBALIZATION
Guest Workers Capital
Money Knowledge/Ideas Political/ Structural Technology Goods
Essential Luxury “Cultural”
“Lifestyles” Refugees Tourists Sport GLOBALIZATION
Money Technology Goods
Essential Luxury Knowledge/Ideas Political/ Structural “Cultural”
“Lifestyles” Sport The flow of capital: the case of tobacco
• While tobacco was first introduced to Asia and Africa around 400 years ago, the way tobacco is used and by whom is rapidly changing as a result of industry production, penetration and marketing Tobacco in the 21st century
• More than 1.1 billion people smoke • Transnational tobacco companies operate in more than 180 countries • The Malboro Man is one of the most widely recognized advertising symbols in the world Source: World Lung Foundation and the American Cancer Society The role of TNCs
• The single most important force in creating global shifts in economic activity • A business organization that operates across national borders by selling goods on the international market or having factories in more than one country • Have geographical flexibility (an ability to shift resources and operations between different locations) • Maximize the comparative advantage between countries Globalized manufacture and marketing of cigarettes • Transnational Tobacco Companies operate in more than 180 countries • Despite four decades of understanding about the hazards of tobacco smoking, the burden of premature death and ill health caused by cigarettes shows no sign of abating – particularly in developing countries Source: The World Health Organisation: Tobacco Free Initiative WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008, page 15 Source: The World Health Organisation: Tobacco Free Initiative WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008, page 19 Source: The World Health Organisation: Tobacco Free Initiative WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008, page 57 The global flow of capital and knowledge/ideas
• The production of pharmaceuticals and the their use in the developing world
– Pharmaceuticals are increasingly dominated by a small number of large TNCs – Many of these are promoted heavily in developing countries – Problem with over the counter availability of pharmaceuticals
• Dangers associated with imported drugs include severe side effects, drug allergies, self poisoning, inappropriate use and development of drug resistant strains of microbes or parasites Source: World Health Organization, Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. Who Reports 2007, 2008 and 2009 • Each year 500 million people become infected with malaria and nearly three million, mostly children, die from it (World Health Organization) • Only 13 of the 1223 new chemical entities commercialized between 1975 and 1997 were for tropical diseases 10/90 Gap
• Global Forum for Health Research found that only 10% of the worldwide expenditure on health research and development is devoted to problems that primarily affect the poorest 90% of the world
Source: guardian.co.uk Intellectual property and life saving medicines
• ‘Nowhere have perceptions of conflict between the World Trade Organisation system and protection for health been as strong as in the area of trade in lifesaving medications. The AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa has made WTO treatment of drug companies’ intellectual property rights into one of the most visible and poignant international issues of our time’.
• (Bloch and Jungman in Globalization and Health 2007:257) A global view of HIV infection
33 million people [30–36 million] living with HIV, 2007 2.2 Source: UNAIDS Global Report 2008 Life expectancy at birth, selected regions, 1950–1955 to 2005–2010
90 80 70 Years 60 50 40 30
1950– 1955– 1960– 1965– 1970– 1975– 1980– 1985– 1990– 1995– 2000– 2005– 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Western Europe Asia Southern Africa Western Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa 2.11 Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unpp The impact of AIDS
• AIDS can decimate the labour force • In 2003 1967 teachers in Zambia were lost to the disease and over 2000 the following year UN AIDS Global Report 2008 • In Malawi 30% of the teachers were HIV Children from Malawi positive Antiretroviral therapies
• Only a small fraction of infected Africans receive antiretroviral therapy • Patent protected prices for drugs (as well as those for malaria and tuberculous) are out of reach of most of the third world poor • The pharmaceutical industry argues that the patent-protected monopoly pricing is necessary to promote research on breakthrough drugs to the value of all, including the poor • WHAT DO YOU THINK? AIDS and ART (Antiretroviral Therapy)
• 5-6 million South Africans are infected with HIV (19% of the adult population) • Only one third have acess to ART • More than 1.2 million deaths from AIDS could be prevented in the next 5 years by further access to ART However, can she read English? AIDS prevention
• Does this take into account the local social realities and cultural attitudes towards the disease? • Many of the anti-AIDS billboards are in English – the language used is of Western science and policy • Assumes high rates of literacy Local responses to a globalized problem - glocalization ??
• Does globalization lead to health inequalities around the globe? + Increases in technologies and kinds of health care - For poorer populations there is substantial evidence that, so far, globalization has posed more negative than positive impacts on the risks of infectious diseases, access to products with health risks (eg. tobacco) and access to lifesaving pharmaceuticals 2005
Live8 Concerts to end world poverty
• ‘Won’t get fooled again’ by The Who
• (written 1971, performed @ Live8 in 2005)
– 'll tip my hat to the new constitution – Take a bow for the new revolution – Smile and grin at the change all around – Pick up my guitar and play – Just like yesterday – Then I'll get on my knees and pray – We don't get fooled again ...
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- Spring '11