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The SURF survey is now open. Please complete the survey. It should take no more than 10 minutes. The results help us improve the unit. THANK YOU! Glocalisation: Culture and Change in the New World Order Martin Forsey 13 October 2009 Major Questions
Globalisation as opportunity Globalisation as relentless change Globalisation as homogenising force A Masai Chef Tribal Yoga in California A bike trek in Nagaland Cultural globalisation: the increasing intermingling of centres of cultural diversity, language, religion, customs, music, cuisine, the main agents of which are migration, commodity exchange, global media, tourism and telecommunications (Holmes, Hughes and Julian 2003, p.422) A good book to read In closed reserve in the Reid Library Cultural Versus Economic Globalisation
Cultural globalisation: the increasing intermingling of centres of cultural diversity, language, religion, customs, music, cuisine, the main agents of which are migration, commodity exchange, global media, tourism and telecommunications (Holmes, Hughes and Julian 2003, p.422) Economic Globalisation Consumption mediated by money – the dominant medium of exchange Politics and economies integrated in an abstract, anonymous and globally connected network of investments, exchange and migration Individuals cannot affect the system decisively (Eriksen p.298) Culture
How is the concept used? • Culture as shared beliefs, values and practices
– Capturing collectivities – Allowing for individuality • Culture as process/practice/metaphor
– A concept, not a ‘thing’ (avoiding reification) – Enabling communication - capturing social phenomena • Culture as difference making
– Marking difference – Encapsulating a people A sporting nation?
If you couldn’t kick a ball Or you couldn’t hold a bat … Then you wouldn’t be an Aussie You wouldn’t be true blue
(Biscuit advertisement 1960s – Vamplew 1994, p.11) Is This More Like It?
If you don’t learn how to work for money Or don’t want to buy a house, a car, good food, nice clothes, health insurance, shares … Then you wouldn’t be an Aussie You wouldn’t be true blue A capitalist culture? Diverted to Delhi Globalisation of Capitalism: a process by which one culture encircles the globe. This can be seen in the rationalisation of production (eg ‘the world car’) and the standardisation of consumption (what George Ritzer has called the McDonaldisation of society) (Holmes, Hughes and Julian 2003,p.429) Structure/Culture/Agency
Economic Globalisation Consumption mediated by money – the dominant medium of exchange Politics and economies integrated in an abstract, anonymous and globally connected network of investments, exchange and migration Individuals cannot affect the system decisively (Eriksen p.298) Does structure trump culture (or agency?) Is the economic ultimately more important than all other aspects of cultural life? Materialist arguments Economic determinism A Case Study
• Straight, Bilinda. 2002 From Samburu Heirloom to New Age Artifact: The Crosscultural consumption of Mporo Marriage Beads, American Anthropologist 104(1), pp 7-21. Cross-cultural consumption of Mporo Marriage Beads
• Bilinda Straight • Samburu People of Northern Kenya • Globalization has not translated into homogenisation • The importance of imagination • Commodities as complex border-crossing embodiments of multiple histories Mporo Marriage Beads ‘It is not good to sell things that contain your own latakuni (dirt)’ • Mporo beads have transformed from cheap commodity to meaningfilled heirloom • ‘The beauty of abundance’ • Seemingly inalienable • But cash is sometimes needed… From Samburu Heirloom to New Age Artifact
• The re-commodification of Mporo beads • Nostalgia, “exotic” travel and the past converge • ‘Mporo beads are sensuous reminders of the loss of … cultures of natural wonders and rich cultural practices they (Euro-American women) imagine themselves to have lost long ago and which they believe they have to hold onto amid the “vanishing” brought about by modernity’ (p.16). • The beads are imagined as retaining their essence, their latakuni - a ‘fictional inalienability’ Anthropology brings to globalisation studies the recognition that social and cultural worlds are always expressed through meaningful relationships. Through its ethnographic depth, anthropology also has the authority and the ability to collapse a number of counterproductive dichotomies: the local and the global, the virtual and the real, … the universal and the particular. What about the In real life settings such economic and the contrasts evaporate cultural – do they also
collapse into each other?
(Eriksen 2003:15). Brought into the market - TNCs Institutionalisation of human rights Institutionalisation of other social practices – education, health, law etc NGOs The place would be democratised - rather than colonised 1900 1950 2000 Imagine discovering an island Diverted to Delhi Cultural globalisation: the increasing intermingling of centres of cultural diversity, language, religion, customs, music, cuisine, the main agents of which are migration, commodity exchange, global media, tourism and telecommunications
Australians Australian ‘Americans are only interested in hearing another American accent’. ‘They [the call centre “executives”] have to take American holidays but have to work on their own religious holidays’.
Comments by Greg Stitt, Director of Diverted to Delhi Economic Globalisation
Eriksen (p.298) Consumption mediated by money – the dominant medium of exchange Politics and economies integrated in an abstract, anonymous and globally connected network of investments, exchange and migration Individuals cannot affect the system decisively Events in one place have ramifications elsewhere People’s lives are neither wholly global or wholly local – they are glocal (p.302). The Great Globalisation Debate
‘That Globalisation really means Westernization’. But it is still McDonalds McDonaldization
• the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (Ritzer, 1993:1) McDonaldization
Four main dimensions : • Efficiency- Rational determination of the best mode of production and the optimum method of completing a task. Individuality is not encouraged. • Calculability - Assessment of outcomes based on quantifiable rather than subjective criteria. Quantity over quality, selling the Big Mac, not the Good Mac. • Predictability – Organising production processes to guarantee uniform products and standardized outcomes (hence all shopping malls seem the same). • Control - The substitution of human labour with predictable non-human “labour” through automation and/or deskilling of the work force.
http://www.mcdonaldization.com/whatisit.shtml ‘Economics is all about how people make choices Sociology is all about how they don’t have any choices to make’
Duesenberry (1960) The Practice Challenge
Interrogating the dynamic interplay between culture, structure and agency evident in the real world choices made by flesh and blood human beings; the constraining factors, the enabling opportunities and the more prosaic moves towards ‘getting by’ and ‘making do’ that mark the everyday activities of human subjects (Forsey, Davies and Walford 2008). Explaining Poverty Explaining Globalisation and its effects Explaining Breakfast
EGO Social Structure Agency Being Sociological
p.123 “Globalization involves the inexorable integration of markets, nation states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before” Culture (Friedman 1999) Form of globalisation? Inexorable? We cannot reduce globalization processes to economics and technology. Technology is socially shaped just as it is socially shaping There are always choices Social Structure EGO Agency Analysing and Explaining Globalisation
Materialist perspectives World systems theory & Dependency Culturalist perspectives Diffusionism Christianisation/ Primacy of the nation Islamisation state Democratisation Economic globalisation McDonaldization Neoliberalism & Movement of artefacts Structural Adjustment Rise of TNCs (MNCs) Technological change Cultural Flows (Appadurai) Globalisation…
Underpinned by various competing and seemingly contradictory forces • The global and/or the local
– Homogenisation (accommodation/resistance) – Increased emphasis on ‘the local’ • Cultural Appropriation and/or Cultural Borrowing
– Hegemony/Power – Diffusion • Gains and/or Losses
– Whose winning? – Whose losing? – Whose doing both? Economic versus Cultural Globalisation
Ultimately does the economic/structural trump the cultural/social? (Is global capitalism an irrepressible force?) Or is it a false dichotomy? Both are respectable anthropological/sociological perspectives to take Your task is to work out your stance on this • Good luck • Go well • See some of you next year… ...
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