[4] 040309 - Critical Thinking III

[4] 040309 - Critical Thinking III - Critical Thinking III...

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Critical Thinking III Doing research Dave Van Valkenburg Psychology 1101 Outline • Scientific theory • The necessity of control experiments • Essentialism versus operationalism Scientific Theory The misconception of scientific theory • The non-scientist uses the word ‘theory’ in a very different way to the scientist. • To the non-scientist: a theory is a guess, a hunch, a gut feeling… great for cocktail party discussions. • One theory is as good as the next… Scientific Theories and Hypotheses • In science, a theory is an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data AND to make specific predictions about the results of future experiments. – Falsifiablility! • The latter part is the def’n of a Hypothesis • Some theories ARE better than others! – They’ve had some or many of their hypothesis confirmed.
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Let’s pick on Freud • Freud’s theories could explain ANYTHING and EVERYTHING having to do with human behaviour… • After the behaviour manifested itself of course. Psychoanalytic perspectives on Tourette Syndrome I) • A patient was ‘reluctant to give up the tic because it became a source of erotic pleasure to her and an expression of unconscious sexual strivings’ II) • The tics are “stereotyped equivalents of onanism [masturbation]… the libido connected with the genital sensation was displaced into other parts of the body”. III) • The tic is a “conversion symptom at the analsadistic level” IV) • A person with the syndrome has a “compulsive character, as well as a narcissistic orientation” and the tics “represent an affective syndrome, a defence against the intended affect”. Psychoanalytic conclusions: • “Psychoanalytic theorising of this kind in effect leaves no base untouched. Tics are a conversion symptom but not hysterical, anal but also erotic, volitional but also compulsive, organic but also dynamic in origin” (Shapiro, 1978) • When Falsification is ignored, any theory is as good as the next! The attraction of ignoring the Falsifiable criterion
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Mannen during the Spring '11 term at Texas Brownsville.

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[4] 040309 - Critical Thinking III - Critical Thinking III...

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