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[7] 160309 - Behavioural Neuroscience III

[7] 160309 - Behavioural Neuroscience III - Homunculus The...

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Behavioural Neuroscience III Brain Anatomy From more ancient to more recent - From back to front - From bottom to top Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Forebrain - Most recent evolutionary development - Cerebral cortex (L. ‘bark’) - 80% volume of human brain - Thalamus 4. With mid-brain, important ‘junction box’ for sensory input - Hypothalamus (under thalamus) - Regulation of eating, drinking, temperature, sexual behaviour - Limbic system - Amygdala - Involved in motivational systems (fear, aggression, defensiveness) - Hippocampus (Gk. ‘sea-horse’)
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- Important for memory formation The Cerebral Cortex 0. Area 1. Approximately 2200 square cm - Or a square 47cm on each side - Thickness - Approximately 5mm but it caries from one place to another. Dorsal view of the cerebral cortex The Cortical Lobes The Occipital Lobes - Primary role in visual processing
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The Temporal Lobes 6. Primary role in auditory processing, and language comprehension The Parietal Lobes 7. Contains the somatosensory cortex The motor cortex (blue) and the somatosensory cortex immediately behind it (red)
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Unformatted text preview: Homunculus The somatosensory and motor cortices 8. How do we know where they are?-By mapping the receptive fields- How?-With pins, needles and electrodes-And by asking volunteers with exposed brains The Frontal Lobes-Largest lobes-Planning and decision making-Strategic thinking and inhibition-Particular role in personality-Motor cortex-Target of ‘frontal lobotomies’ The iron rod destroyed Phineas’ left frontal lobe Phineas Gage’s Injury How do we know what the brain does? • Deficits in people with brain damage • Experimental studies with normal and brain-damaged subjects • Brain imaging studies • EEG - Electroencephalography • PET - Positron Emission Tomography • MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Damage Experimental Studies: Self-stimulation Experimental Studies: Lesions Electroencephalography Positron Emission Tomography PET – Learning Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain scans: fMRI...
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