societies tend to stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy.
U.S. and Canada
cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to one’s family or clan.
Japan, South Korea
- Cultures with long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to
China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea
- Cultures with short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social
U.S., Canada, Great Britain, Zimbabwe, Nigeria
Implications of Cultural Variations
Exporting OB Theories.
- Organizational behaviour theories, research, and practices from North America might not translate well
to other societies, even in Mexico.
- Example, trying to translate lower power distance like giving employees more decision making
wouldn’t fit well in a high power distance society.
- In North America, it is normal to call attention to an individual’s accomplishment, where in some
cultures that is devalued and it makes more sense to reward groups.
- Integrating women into management positions in masculine cultures might require high sensitivity.
- A good fit between a company’s practices and host culture is very important,
Importing OB theories
- Using theories that are not North American, such as Japanese Management, such as quality circles, total
quality management, and just-in-time production.
- Problems importing these may stem from basic value differences between Japan and North America.
- Since Japan has collective cultural values, they are more team oriented and submerging one’s own
interest in those of the team is natural.
- Although in North America and having more individualistic values, it is necessary to carefully select
– Power distance and individualism values for various countries and regions.
Appreciating Global Customers.
- Appreciating cross-cultural differences in vales is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of
customers or clients world wide.
- Disneyland Paris not meeting French tastes in food, lifestyle, or entertainment
- South Korea Samsung putting a calendar on their phone with one of the girls has a see through blouse.
- Having awareness of diversity in ones own culture can boost profits, like some corporations in Canada,
USA, and Australia by increasing their ethnic diversity.
Developing Global Employees