Hist_302__(Spring_2007)_part_1

Hist_302__(Spring_2007)_part_1 - HIST 302 (Spring 2007)...

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HIST 302 (Spring 2007) PART 1
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THE WORLD WAR II 1939-1945 The End of the Single-Party Era TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY 1945-1950 From Single-Party Era to Multi-Party Era DEMOCRAT PARTY ERA 1950 -1960 Transition to Democracy and Liberalism THE SECOND REPUBLIC 1960-1961 27 May 1960 and the 1961 Constitution PLANNING AND ECONOMIC GROWTH 1961-1973 Problems of Pluralism and Democracy
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WORLD RECESSION AND CRISIS 1974-1980 Political and Economic Distress THE THIRD REPUBLIC AND REFORMS 1980 - 1991 Political and Economic Restructuring CREDITS AND DEBITS OF GLOBALIZATION UPS AND DOWNS AND RECOVERY 1991 – 2007 Towards the 21st Century
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Transition to Democracy Wartime Developments Social Stata (Classes) 1. Peasantry 1945 :% 83 – 40.000 villages 1955: % 71 Small property: the dominant type 2. Industrial Workers – Working Class 3. Middling Strata: Landowners, Businessmen, Intellectuals
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Statism created capital and allowed accumulation in private hands Classes / strata differentiated Conflicts arouse Difficulty in maintaining social policy and statism General discontent Peasantry – The largest social group Living standard of peasantry deteriorated
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Villages confronted with following problems: 1. Shortages of land 2. Farming methods and techniques 3. Large estates Distribution of national income unbalanced
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Measures necessitated by war: a) Industrialization in its initial stage possible only by exploiting internal markets chiefly the rural ones. despite the removal of tithe ( aşar)
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Two states organizations: Aim: to help the peasant in time: became a burden on him 1. Office of Soil Products ( Toprak Mahsulleri Ofisi ) 2. Forestry Enterprise ( Orman İşletmeleri ) Office of Soil Products 1938 1. To protect peasant through price supports 2. To accumulate farm supplies for army, schools, & needy regions
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2. Forestry Enterprise ( Orman İşletmeleri ) a. To exploit forests b. To conserve existing ones c. To reforest new areas
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Uneven distribution of burden when war broke out 1. Sharp increase in consumption of soil products Army – from 120.000 to 1.500.000 No official mobilization Ministry of Defence budget % 30 to % 50 Tax raises Increase in money supply – Printing money
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2. Decrease in agricultural production producers drafted into the army Shortage of bread Uneven distribution of the burden Inflation Consumer price index increase: from 100 to 459 Excluding black market prices
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Four legislations affecting Single-Party Era 1. National Defence Law - January 1940 (Milli Korunma Kanunu) 2. Tax on capital (Varlık Vergisi) 1942 3. Agricultural Products Law (Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi) 1942 4. Land Reform Law (Çiftçiyi Topraklandırma Kanunu) 1945
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New wave of state intenvention 1. National Defence Law - January 1940 (Milli Korunma Kanunu) Unlimited powers to authorities : Fix prices Requisition materials (farm products) Impose forced labor (angarya)
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Crop prices established arbitrarily
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course HIST 301 taught by Professor Raultekin during the Spring '10 term at Boğaziçi University.

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Hist_302__(Spring_2007)_part_1 - HIST 302 (Spring 2007)...

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