Midterm_Studyguide-1 - Midterm Study Guide The following is...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of topics that you should be familiar with for the upcoming Midterm. NOTE: The exam questions will be drawn from the topics on this study guide. However, just because a topic is on the study guide does not necessarily mean that it will be on the exam, but there will be NO question on the exam that was not drawn from the topics on the study guide. What is the definition of philosophy that is being employed for this course? What are the two Greek words from which philosophy is derived and what are their meanings? Philosophy : the systematic quest for truth via rational inquiry for the sake of wisdom Philein- “to love” Sophia- “wisdom” Which philosopher wrote which works? o Examples : “The Value of Philosophy” (Bertrand Russell) “The Allegory of the Cave” (Plato), the Categories (Aristotle). What are the four primary branches of philosophy and what are they concerned with? Logic - strict abstract knowledge Epistemology - study of knowledge Metaphysics - nature of reality Ethics - what is right, good? What does it mean to say that truth is objective? ?? A statement is true if and only if the statement corresponds to the facts (the way the world is) How do necessary, impossible, and contingent statements differ? Necessary- S is true and it is not possible for S to be false Impossible- S is false and it is not possible for S to be true Contingent- S is true but might have been false OR S is false but might have been true What is the difference between a posteriori and a priori knowledge? A Posteriori - is about things that are knowable only from experience A Priori - is about things that are knowable before- or independent of- experience What is meant by rationalism/empiricism? How would you characterize the primary philosophers that we have examined thus far (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes)? Rationalism - knowledge can only be gained through (or fundamentally depends on) intuitions, innate ideas, and deduction Empiricism - knowledge can only be gained through sense experience Aristotle- Plato- Descartes- What is the definition of validity? Make sure that you can distinguish valid and invalid arguments. An argument id VALID if and only if it is impossible for all of its premises to be true and its conclusion to be false. A valid argument- the conclusion logically follows from the premise(s)
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
**Validity has nothing to do with the truth of the argument; only its form! It is possible to form a valid argument with false premises and even a false conclusion What is an inductive argument?
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern