Midterm_Studyguide-1

Midterm_Studyguide-1 - Midterm Study Guide The following is...

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Midterm Study Guide The following is a list of topics that you should be familiar with for the upcoming Midterm. NOTE: The exam questions will be drawn from the topics on this study guide. However, just because a topic is on the study guide does not necessarily mean that it will be on the exam, but there will be NO question on the exam that was not drawn from the topics on the study guide. What is the definition of philosophy that is being employed for this course? What are the two Greek words from which philosophy is derived and what are their meanings? Philosophy : the systematic quest for truth via rational inquiry for the sake of wisdom Philein- “to love” Sophia- “wisdom” Which philosopher wrote which works? o Examples : “The Value of Philosophy” (Bertrand Russell) “The Allegory of the Cave” (Plato), the Categories (Aristotle). What are the four primary branches of philosophy and what are they concerned with? Logic - strict abstract knowledge Epistemology - study of knowledge Metaphysics - nature of reality Ethics - what is right, good? What does it mean to say that truth is objective? ?? A statement is true if and only if the statement corresponds to the facts (the way the world is) How do necessary, impossible, and contingent statements differ? Necessary- S is true and it is not possible for S to be false Impossible- S is false and it is not possible for S to be true Contingent- S is true but might have been false OR S is false but might have been true What is the difference between a posteriori and a priori knowledge? A Posteriori - is about things that are knowable only from experience A Priori - is about things that are knowable before- or independent of- experience What is meant by rationalism/empiricism? How would you characterize the primary philosophers that we have examined thus far (Plato, Aristotle, Descartes)? Rationalism - knowledge can only be gained through (or fundamentally depends on) intuitions, innate ideas, and deduction Empiricism - knowledge can only be gained through sense experience Aristotle- Plato- Descartes- What is the definition of validity? Make sure that you can distinguish valid and invalid arguments. An argument id VALID if and only if it is impossible for all of its premises to be true and its conclusion to be false. A valid argument- the conclusion logically follows from the premise(s)
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**Validity has nothing to do with the truth of the argument; only its form! It is possible to form a valid argument with false premises and even a false conclusion What is an inductive argument? What is cogency? Inductive argument
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2011 for the course PHILOSOPHY 105 taught by Professor Heter during the Spring '08 term at Saint Louis.

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Midterm_Studyguide-1 - Midterm Study Guide The following is...

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