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Unformatted text preview: (Re)sources/(Re)sources II: Forests/Business September 20 Readings Due • Today: LE Chapter 10 • Wednesday: 2010 sec?on on “Business and Economy” pp 83‐116 Meta‐Message • “Tree planta?ons are not forests.” They impact local, regional, and global climates and ecosystems in diﬀerent ways. Some of these impacts have the poten?al to be posi?ve, but many have tended to be nega?ve. Forests also have very diﬀerent social ramiﬁca?ons than na?ve forests. Why care about forests? • Home to 1000s of diﬀerent species • “Lungs of the earth” (CaldicoT 2009) • Signiﬁcant micro‐clima?c and hydrologic regula?on Uses of Forests and Trees Uses of Forests and Trees paper, construc?on/?mber, fuel: ﬁrewood and charcoal food: fruits and miscellaneous ingredients cellulose for industrial products (including explosives and plas?cs), • resins used for glue, soap, car ?res, gum, pharmaceu?cals. • medicines and remedies • • • • • Deforesta?on Compe?ng land uses: Deforesta?on Compe?ng land uses: • Industrial agriculture Deforesta?on Compe?ng land uses: • Industrial agriculture • CaTle ranching Deforesta?on Compe?ng land uses: • Industrial agriculture • CaTle ranching • Oil and gas Deforesta?on Compe?ng land uses: • Industrial agriculture • CaTle ranching • Oil and gas • Mining Tree planta?ons are NOT forests Tree planta?ons are taking over parts of Argen?na, Brazil and Uruguay ARE THEY beneﬁcial because of mi?ga?ng eﬀects on global climate change OR harmful because they destruct na?ve ecosystems and local communi?es From fao.org Impacts of tree planta?ons • pressure to sell farmland • gender inequity • reducing food crops • degrading soil fer?lity • water deple?on • na?ve habitats altera?on • Intensifying droughts and regional climate shias Equalogy.com The story of Uruguay Geology.com A Uruguayan consumes 40 kilos of paper per year, compared to 400 kilos consumed by someone in Finland. La?n America and the Caribbean: Atlas of Our Changing Environment by UNEP Kalipedia.com Shias in Policy 1987: Forestry Law • wriTen for big business • coincided with rising neoliberal policies of the ?me 2006 leaists in power eliminated subsidies to the industry and mandated environmental and social regula?ons, but environmentalists are s?ll wary of the eﬀects of the large planta?ons. Iciforestal.com Uruguay: Summary • ECOLOGICAL: water • SOCIAL: industrial forest quality and shias in expansion displaces water cycle, habitat loss small farmers, and biodiversity loss, foreignises agricultural soil degrada?on land, and damages a culture of food produc?on in this small South American na?on. The story of Brazil Heavy rains over Brazil from earthobservatory.nasa.gov Policy Changes Reversal of 1965 Forestry Code: From lab.org.uk Policy Changes Reversal of 1965 Forestry Code: • Amnesty for illegal logging in large parts of the Amazon From lab.org.uk Policy Changes Reversal of 1965 Forestry Code: • Amnesty for illegal logging in large parts of the Amazon • Reduc?on of buﬀers From lab.org.uk Policy Changes Reversal of 1965 Forestry Code: • Amnesty for illegal logging in large parts of the Amazon • Reduc?on of buﬀers • Removal of requirement for proper?es in legal reserve From lab.org.uk Climate Eﬀects Argued to allow the release of 12.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide stored in the vegeta?on of the Amazon. Deforesta?on responsible for 75 percent of Brazil's climate‐changing emissions qwickstep.com Brazil: Summary INTERCONNECTEDNESS poli?cs, economics, culture and environment are inextricably intertwined Travelamazingsouth‐america.com And ecology.com and nasa.gov Tree Planta?ons as Carbon Oﬀsets? Wangari Maathai 4 min hTp://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=A3kDZOOHWHE 3 in a row clip #2, 3 and 4 hTp://www.youtube.com/ watch? v=zzikL5MJWCg&feature=ch annel • hTp://www.youtube.com/ watch? v=MG5LO9zZmXg&feature= channel • hTp://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=L1C3Q‐ j5XR4&feature=channel Next Time . . . Forests + Economics Forest industry in Chile sows poverty, new study shows. Browse the sustainable business network of Philadelphia. www.sbnphiladelphia.org Who are they? What are they doing? Is this valuable work towards sustainability? What more might be done? (Re)sources/(Re)sources II conTnued: Forests/Business September 22 Meta‐Message • The dominant economic ideology and prac?ce must change, in at least small or perhaps large ways, in order to move towards sustainability of forest (re)sources and of the Earth more broadly.. Neoliberalism • Based on the free‐market principals of M. Friedman and the like from the Chicago School • Pinochet (Chile), Thatcher (UK), Reagan (US) • World Bank and Interna?onal Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organiza?on (WTO) Neoliberalism: main points • The rule of the market • Deregula?on • De‐unionizing of labor forces • Reducing public expenditure for social services • Priva?za?on of public enterprise Changing ideology: Individualism and individual responsibility Economic growth is the way to human progress Governments should provide the infrastructure to advance tort law and property rights inequi?es • 3 billion people live on under 2 dollars a day • 86 percent of the world’s resources are consumed by the world’s wealthiest 20 percent From archive.bmj.com Clip from “Come September” hTp://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=945405493000735497# From 40:30 to end CASE 1 SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVE (SFI) Compare to fair trade or organic or sustainable seafood or dolphin safe cer?ﬁca?on and labeling schemes meant to allow traceability along the commodity chain Components of SFI • SFI Forest Cer?ﬁca?on Components of SFI • SFI Forest Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI chain‐of‐custody Cer?ﬁca?on Components of SFI • SFI Forest Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI chain‐of‐custody Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI ﬁber‐sourcing Cer?ﬁca?on Components of SFI • SFI Forest Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI chain‐of‐custody Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI ﬁber‐sourcing Cer?ﬁca?on • SFI Labeling Requirements of SFI Environmental harvested areas are reforested; biological diversity is conserved; wildlife habitat, soils and water resources are maintained; BMP ?mber harves?ng Social freedom of associa?on collec?ve bargaining civil rights compliance equal employment an?‐discrimina?on workers’ compensa?on indigenous rights CASE 2 INDIGENOUS FORESTRY COMMUNITY: IXTLÁN DE JUAREZ Community NO private Focus on: job crea?on reducing emigra?on to ci?es enhancing the overall well‐being of the community “Community Service” (not a piecemeal approach to service) Balancing Act Income in a global economy Long term forest management What do you think? • What are the beneﬁts of both ini?a?ves? Forest cer?ﬁca?on/labeling and communal management schemes? • Are there any drawbacks? What do labeling schemes do for changing the culture of business and economics? What about communal management? • Are these examples of shallow/narrow ecology or deep/wide ecology? (explain) www.sbnphiladelphia.org? ...
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- Fall '11