Ocean FINAL - Oceanography FINAL Causes of tides: 1. Moon-...

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Oceanography FINAL Causes of tides : 1. Moon- gravitational pull 2. Centrifugal force- the earth’s rotation Spring tides : have the highest and lowest tides. Happen during full moon and new moon (happens 2 times a month) Neap Tides : small tidal range. Happens during half moon Ebb currents : water flows OUT due to falling tide Flood currents : water flows IN due to rising tide Semi-diurnal tides : two high tides and two low tides in 24 hours (equator) Diurnal tides : 1 high tide and 1 low tide in 24 hours (poles) Mixed tides : 2 different high tides and 2 different low tides in 24 hours (mid-latitudes) Tidal Range : difference between the high tide and low tide When a wave breaks : when a wave loses its velocity. Wave height increases and wave length decreases and wave breaks Types of waves : spinning, plunging, surging Tsunamis : shallow water waves that have really long wave length and very small height, caused by rapid displacement of water from earth disturbances (earthquakes most common) 3 factors that control size of wave : 1) wind strength 2) wind duration 3) Fetch Latitude that produces biggest waves : 40 degrees Marine Ecology : (biological oceanography) the study of interactions between ocean organisms and their environments Natural Selection : organisms that have evolved and received specific traits and pass those are more likely to survive Species live where they live: evolution and adaptation Eury : species can live in a WIDE range of conditions (sharks, salt marsh plants) Steno : species can live in a NARROW range of conditions (sea turtle, coral reef)
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Habitat : organism’s physical location Niche : organism’s role in the community Biodiversity : the variety of species in a community Abundance : how many species there are Symbiosis : the relationship between each organism Mutualism : both species benefit in the relationship Commensalism : one species benefits, the other is neither harmed nor helped Parasitism : one species benefits, the other is harmed Primary Productivity : production of organic materials from inorganic material by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Photosynthesis : light energy converts to carbon dioxide and water into sugar (C6H12O6) obtained by sunlight Chemosynthesis : obtained by hydrogen sulfide (in hydrothermal vents) Primary Consumers : anything that feeds on primary producers Limiting Factors of Productivity : sunlight and nutrients Use of accessory pigments: plants with chlorophyll attain primary production through photosynthesis. Plants catch the red wave lengths and reflect the blue and green wave lengths and this all takes place in the photic zone. Species in the dysphotic and aphotic zones use accessory pigments because the red wavelengths only reach from 0-100 m Distribution of Plankton Productivity : tropics: low productivity and no variation Polar: short living plankton blooms during the peak of summer
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Ocean FINAL - Oceanography FINAL Causes of tides: 1. Moon-...

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