Ocean Midterm

Ocean Midterm - ORIGINS What is Oceanography...

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ORIGINS What is Oceanography : Interdisciplinary science Components of Oceanography : geology, chemistry, physics, biology, engineering/management Differences b/t inner planets and outer planets : inner planets (telluric) are heavier and denser. Outside planets (cold giants) are lighter and less dense Big Bang Theory : best explains how earth was created: 15 billion years ago Based on: Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity and Hubble’s theory that universe Is expanding since stars are growing farther away from each other -Earth is created out of a simple piece of matter in cosmic explosion and thru density stratification (started spinning) causing matter to be attracted to each other Primordial Soup : theory that best explains creation of life. Life originated in the ocean. Water is excellent medium for life Ancient oceans on Earth were filled with organic matter (water vapor, ammonia, methane and hydrogen) formed by the interaction between the atmospheric gases and energy provided by volcanic eruptions, powerful electric storms, and solar ultraviolet radiation Stanley Miller=set up experiment to duplicate process, but only ended up creating organic molecules which was not enough to prove this theory Primordial Pizza states that life originated on land Panspermia Hypothesis: life came from a comet brought from outer space Sources of Earth’s Water : sedimentary rocks tell water showed up 3.7 billion years ago came from either 1) An ice comet or 2) the earth’s mantel: outgassing- hydrogen and oxygen trapped in the molten interior of earth, as molten and melting rock erupted to surface, water formed as they cooled Definition of Life : capable of growing more complex, obtains and uses energy by breaking down chemical compounds, capable of self replicating Characteristics of H20 for Life : 1. Retains heat 2. Moderates temp 3. Solvent-dissolves chemicals 4. Transports nutrients Formation of Atmosphere : 1 st living organism: archea= plant. Underwent photosynthesis and released 02 into atmosphere, OZONE layer then developed. Regulated temperature =In the THERMAL VENTS Atmosphere made up of: methane, ammonia, co2, and water vapor Cambrian Explosion : appearance of hard-bodied animals
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EXPLORATION Stages of Ocean Exploration: -Two reasons man as gone out into the ocean: 1) economics 2) military a. SETTING OUT (2000 man went to look for food) i. Sea: commerce, fishing, travel/transport of goods ii. Development: navigation and use of boats iii. Scientific understanding: Greeks 1. Latitude using N. Star 2. Map making (Ptolemy) and measure earth (Erastothenese) b. EXPANDING/ EXPLORATION – driven by trade i. Vikings 1. Raiders 2. Good sailors/warriors 3. 1 st to reach N. American coast but didn’t write anything down ii. Chinese 1. Technological advances a. Compass b. Boats w/ several masts iii. European Exploration 1. Dark ages 2. European accumulation of Ptolemy’s map after crusades iv. AGE OF DISCOVERY 1. European society changes to mercantilism
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2011 for the course NURS 101 taught by Professor Carlson during the Spring '11 term at Saint Louis.

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Ocean Midterm - ORIGINS What is Oceanography...

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