Chapter 4 Outline

Chapter 4 Outline -...

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Chapter 4—Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 4.1 – Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Compounds containing carbon are said to be organic o Organic chemistry— the study of carbon compounds  Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms  Major elements of life: S.P.O.N.C.H Different species of organisms, and different individuals within a species, are distinguished by  variations in their organic molecules  Jöns Jakob Berzelius: o Swedish chemist o Made distinction between organic compounds (those thought to arise only in living  organisms) and inorganic compounds (those found only in the nonliving world) Vitalism— the belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws— provided the foundation for the new discipline of organic chemistry    Friedrich Wöhler (1828) o German chemist  o Studied with Berzelius  o Attempted to make an “inorganic” salt but instead he had made urea, an organic compound  present in the urine of animals  o Surprised to find that he made an organic compound out of inorganic compounds o Vitalists didn’t believe him because he had used blood from an animal to extract the cyanate  Hermann Kolbe o Student of Wöhler  o Made the compound acetic acid from inorganic substances that could be made directly from  pure elements  Vitalism no longer existed after several decades of laboratory synthesis of some increasingly 
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2011 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Haas during the Spring '08 term at Loyola Chicago.

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Chapter 4 Outline -...

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