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Unformatted text preview: Notes September 22, 2010 Plato and Gorgias see the audience as passive • Speakers have the power Passive vs. Active Audience • Passive—can be persuaded and will accept whatever they are told if said the right way Gorgias • Says there is no truth and no way of communicating it • Public communication becomes something that exists to try to get desires fulfilled • Says there is no ethical issue Plato • Says there is a truth so you shouldn’t pretend to know things when you don’t because you’re lying • Says there is an ethical issue • Thinks the audience doesn’t have the capacity to be rational • Thinks that only a small percentage of people have the capacity to do this Protagoras sees the audience as active Aristotle sees the audience as active • Rhetoric can be used to persuade them but the audiences have the capacity to recognize what’s good/just • Human beings have the capacity for rationality • Says rhetoric shouldn’t be completely rejected o Instead think of how it should be practiced and how it can be used to produce good judgment and enforce ethical values and conduct Kenneth Burke • Scientistic view of language is defining or naming things o Making statements like “it is” or “it is not” • Dramatistic view of language is means of symbolic action o Using language is a form of action o Symbols are a way of acting in the world o Tells us how we should feel or act towards something • Human beings are capable of action rather than just motion o Action always involves ethics because we are making a choice about things that we might do o Human action has ethical dimension • Built into any terminology is going to be a particular perspective on the world o Reflection of reality because it is a way of talking about things out there in the world; it is always a selection of reality • Terminologies tell us what things are connected to each other Notes September 29, 2010 Story • Plot • Bias • Climax • Characters • Message • Setting • Scandal • Resolution • Beginning, middle, and end • Action • Appeals to emotion • Draws you in • Out of the ordinary • Conflict Bennett: • Journalism ought to be devoting its resources to the less entertaining things that have the most impact on people’s lives Hamlet’s Blackberry • Talks about paper as a technology o Because it is a device to facilitate doing something o It was new and innovative o Allowed people to put information down Rhetorical discourse is a response to rhetorical situations • Analogous to answers and questions • Relationship: o For there to be rhetorical discourse, there MUST be a rhetorical situation • Necessary components of a rhetorical situation: o Exigence—a pressing problem Not all exigencies are rhetorical We know it is rhetorical exigence because it can be positively modified or changed directly/indirectly through discourse o Audience—have to be able to be persuaded to go the other way o Constraints/resources—circumstances that get in the way of/help someone’s ability to solve the exigence...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2011 for the course CMUN 175 taught by Professor Pollock during the Spring '11 term at Loyola Chicago.
- Spring '11