Study guidee 2 - Psychology 101 Fall 2010 Study Guide for...

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Psychology 101 Fall 2010 Study Guide for Exam 2 Terms and ideas to know about: - Three processes in development (Examples) 1. physical 2. cognitive – thought, language 3. socioemotional – changes in relationships - Nature vs. nurture controversy Nature – biological inheritance Nurture – environmental experience - Prenatal development: characteristics of 3 periods, teratogens, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 1. Germinal (0-2 weeks), cell division, zygote clings to uterus 2. Embryonic (3-8 weeks), spinal cord, eyes, heart, arms, legs, and intestines are present 3. Fetal (2-9 months), 5 th- hears sounds, develops sleep patterns, 6 th - eyes and eyelids form, grasping re- flexes, 7 th - slowed growth, 8 th - senses functioning, prep for birth. Teratogens - Agent that causes birth defects - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Cluster of abnormalities Preterm babies – babies born premature - Basic Reflexes Reflects we keep Blinking, coughing, yawning Lose after a few months Roofing (touch and turn), sucking, palmer’s grasping, stepping, Babinski reflex (foot stroke) - Physical changes during infancy and childhood Cognitive Infancy Increase in – dendrites, myelinated axons, synaptic connections between neurons Physical childhood Early – growth rate slows, gross and fine motor skills increase, age 3 brain 75% of adult weight, age 5 brain 90 % of adult weight Late – age 10 brain 95% of adult weight, smoother more coordinated actions Cognitive childhood Piaget (1896 – 1980) – children actively construct their world through schemes – framework, concept someone uses to organize info. -4 major stages of Piaget’s theory Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs.) – infant experience the world through senses and actions, object permanence – (8 months) Preoperational (2-7 yrs.) – represents things with symbols, cannot perform mental operations, mental representations are reversible Concrete Operational ( 7-11 yrs. ) – replace intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning, classification skills present but abstract thinking is not yet developed, classify or divide things into different sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations Formal Operational (11-15) – cognitive development, can conceive oh hypothetical possibilities that are purely ab- stract, thought becomes more idealistic, hypothetical-deductive reasoning – ability to develop hypothesis and best hunches about ways to solve problems -Concepts in Piaget’s theory: object permanence, conservation, operation, egocentrism Object permanence – (8 months) object exist even when they cannot be directly seen Conservation – belief in the permanence of certain attributes of object or situations in spite of superficial changes (pouring liquid back from a cup into the container it was originally poured from) Operation – mental representations that are reversible Egocentrism – child’s inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective -Criticisms of Piaget’s work Object permanence can occur earlier, formal operational can occur later. Ignores individual differences and ignores culture and education.
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Study guidee 2 - Psychology 101 Fall 2010 Study Guide for...

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