anth102_notes_021110 -...

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Globalization 11/02/2010 11:54:00 Transnationalism:     Transnational:  between or beyond national boundaries e.g. Transnational Capital and Mass Media Consists of companies and patterns of exchange that transcend national borders and  may evade control by local govern ****************************************************** Transnationalism from Above The penetration of national cultures, economies, and political systems by global  driving forces (i.e. transnational capital/multinational corporations, global media ) Transnationlism from Below Efforts by ordinary people to escape control and domination “from above” by capital and  the state. Cultural hybridity (Mixing of cultures) Multi-positional identities Border-crossing by marginal “others” Transnational business practices by migrant entrepreneurs  ****************************************************** Globalization  as International Movement of People Legal/illegal immigrants : people moving to other countries to work, study, join  family members, etc. Refugees : people who immigrate to other parts of the world, because it is not safe  for them to stay in their homeland
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Guest Workers : people granted permission to work in a country other than their own Tourists : people who travel for recreation, leisure or business purposes. ******************************************************* In the Old Days:  Non-Western groups     : Were perceived by cultural anthropologists to be bounded and clearly definable o They were not, they were individual groups such as hunter-gatherer tribes o Sometime we named them They were Named (mainly by outsiders) They were Assumed to have clearly bounded territories, a common language and  culture Their borrowing of culture, intermarriage, and migration  were mainly ignored ****************************************************** Contemporary Focus in Cultural Anthropology Movement of people (immigrants, tourists, refugees, etc.) Cultural flows, borrowing and hybridity 
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