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anth102_notes_021810 - Week5:Culture&EconomicSystems...

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Week 5: Culture & Economic Systems 18/02/2010 12:23:00 Week 5: Culture & Economic Systems     Economic System     : the provision/distribution of goods and services to meet  biological and social  wants The organized way in which a nation-state allocates its resources and  distributes  goods and services in the national community ******************************** Need versus Want Need(s) : What we require for our survival:  food/clothing/shelter/water/security/protection from disease Want(s):  The way in which our needs are expressed in specific culturally defined  desires (particular kind of food, clothing, shelter, etc.)  *********************************** Various parts of the Economic Systems Production : creating material items useful and available for human consumption The allocation of Resources : the cultural rules people use to assign rights to the  ownership and use of resources Technology : the cultural knowledge for making and using tools and extracting and  refining raw materials. Division of Labor : rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people. The Unit of Production : The persons or groups responsible for producing goods.  (Whether or not the labor is specialized) ************************************
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The Distribution: The transfer of goods and services Market exchange : the transfer of goods and services based on price, supply and  demand (e.g. when we pay for an item in a store). Reciprocal exchange (Reciprocity) : the transfer of goods and services between  two people or groups based on role obligations (e.g. when we exchange birthday or  holiday gifts) Redistribution : the transfer of goods and services between a central collecting  source and a group of individuals.  It is also based on role obligations (e.g. when we  pay taxes).   **************************************** Market vs. Subsistence Economies Subsistence Economies
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