Texts: “Alienated Labor,” pp. 62-64;
Excerpt Notes of 1844, pp. 45-46, 50-53;
“Critique of Hegelian Dialectic and Philosophy in General,” pp. 87-88;
Capital, Ch. 7, “The Labor Process,” pp. 274-82.
A. Nature: Humanity's Inorganic Body
1. Life as a relation between organisms and their environment.
2. Humans distinct from non-human animals.
b) Labor (objectification)
e) Social relations – a discovery!
B. Free Human Production, p. 50-53
Firstly, in creating something, I objectify myself (my powers and inclinations) in the course of
its creation. In other words, I experience myself reflected back in the sensuous object I created, and
experience it as an affirmation of my power to create. I enjoy myself in the course of this, as I am
naturally inclined to create things.
Secondly, in your use of the thing I created, I satisfy a need of yours which, as a need, is
something essential to your nature.
Thirdly, in creating a thing that satisfies your need, I mediate between you and the species,
completing your nature, and I know myself to be confirmed in your thought and appreciation. We both
recognize your need, its satisfaction, and my being directly responsible for its satisfaction, as