Chapter 51 Behavior

Chapter 51 Behavior - Chapter 51: Behavior Behavior Action...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 51: Behavior Behavior Action in response to a stimulus Honeybees enter flowers to feed Thirsty zebras search for water Plants that are damaged by insects produce toxic chemicals Proximate and ultimate causes The proximate cause is the mechanism by which a behavior occurs The ultimate cause is the adaptive reason behind the behavior 1 Types of behavior 1.1 Stereotyped vs. flexible behavior * pp. 11501154 Fixed behaviors Stereotyped behaviors are behaviors that are performed the same way every time Web weaving in spiders Human reaction to heat Causes If you accidentally touch something hot, what do you do? What is the proximate cause of this behavior? What is the ultimate cause of this behavior? 1 Flexible behaviors Flexible behaviors are performed differently by different individuals Or differently by the same individual in different situations Or both Example: Bee eaters Bee eaters have feeding areas that are separate from their nesting areas They have to balance taking care of their offspring with the time and energy required to fly to their feeding area How might they compensate if they have to fly far to get food? Research shows that bee eaters have the behavioral flexibility to do this Example: Wrasses Some fish deal with the tradeoffs between male and female reproductive success in a very dramatic way. If males have greater variability in fitness than females, its best to be a male if you are big and can be dominant, and best to be a female if you cant Some fish accomplish this by changing sex! Small adults are female; when a female realizes shes the largest fish in her group, she can change sex 2 Example: flying animals Birds and insects often fly into rooms and get trapped even though the opening that they came in through is still open Insects may fly around the same light until they die The ability to escape from situations like this depends on how flexible...
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Chapter 51 Behavior - Chapter 51: Behavior Behavior Action...

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