2011SpringCFS364Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates Chapter 4...

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Carbohydrates Chapter 4 Carbohydrate abbreviations = CHO or carb Carbohydrate Basics Monosaccharides • Single carbohydrate molecule • Examples: glucose (the carbohydrate the body prefers) fructose (naturally found in many fruits) galactose (found in milk) Disaccharides • 2 monosaccharides bond together • Examples: sucrose (table sugar) lactose (carbs in milk) maltose (high in malted alcoholic beverages) • Collectively mono- and disaccharides are called simple sugars Polysaccharides Starch – stored glucose in plants • Processed starch - for example, high fructose corn syrup used to make sodas is partially digested cornstarch and fructose • Glycogen – stored glucose in animals; found primarily in the muscles and liver • Fiber - carbs which are poorly digested by humans, thus, they add bulk to the diet and help the intestine work; cellulose is a type of fiber Glycogen • Branched polymer of glucose (stored glucose). • Individual glucose molecules attract too much water (they have a high cellular osmotic pressure), so the body stores glucose as long polymers called glycogen (glycogen takes up less space and holds less water than glucose alone). • Whenever glucose is needed by the body, it can be obtained from glycogen. General Carbohydrate Intake and Recommendations Food Sources of Carbohydrates Starch – supplies ½ of the carbs in the U.S. diet Sucrose – found primarily in processed foods, like sodas and candy Fructose – naturally found in fruit, but most of the fructose in the American diet is derived from sweeteners rather than fruit Recommendations for Carbohydrates • Percent of total energy should be 45-65% for the general population (endurance athletes may need as high as 70%) • Role of dietary carbohydrate is to provide energy and to promote glycogen storage
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• The minimum recommendation for dietary carbohydrates is 130 grams per day. This is based on the estimated minimum amount of glucose the brain needs to function efficiently. Red blood cells and the brain rely primarily on glucose for energy. Glycemic response Definition: The degree and duration of blood glucose elevation after eating food (takes into account digestion & absorption). The glycemic index (GI) is the comparison of a glycemic response of a food to a food standard, like 50 g of glucose or white bread Fig. 4.8 High GI foods – glucose, bread, potatoes, breakfast cereal, sports drinks (these types of foods result in a quick increase in blood glucose) Moderate GI foods – Sucrose, soft drinks, oats, tropical fruits Low GI foods – fructose, milk, yogurt, lentils, pasta (protein, fat and fiber can lower the glycemic index of a food by slowing the rate of digestion and absorption of monosaccharides) Importance of glycemic index • Low Glycemic index foods are important for pre-exercise (you want a slower release of carbs into the bloodstream) • Med-High Glycemic foods are important – After exercise to help restore glycogen stores (quickly)
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course CFS 364 taught by Professor Mason,k during the Spring '08 term at Western Kentucky University.

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2011SpringCFS364Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates Chapter 4...

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