Alkenes - Chapter 10 Alkenes Alkenes Alkenes compounds that contain carbon-carbon double bonds also called olefins Types Terminal alkenes double

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Chapter 10 Alkenes
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Alkenes • Alkenes - compounds that contain carbon-carbon double bonds; also called olefins . • Types: – Terminal alkenes – double bond at the end of the carbon chain. – Internal alkenes – at least one C atom bonded to each end of the double bond. – Cycloalkenes – contain a double bond in a ring.
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Structure and Bonding • Structure and bonding: – Made up of one σ bond and one π bond. – Carbon is sp 2 hybridized. – Geometry : trigonal planar, 120° angles.
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Structure and Bonding • Bond dissociation energies:
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Structure and Bonding • Cycloalkenes: – Less than 8 carbons – cis geometry; trans isomer has too much strain. H H H H cyclohexene trans isomer does not exist
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Structure and Bonding • Cycloalkenes (contd): – C8 – C11 – cis isomer more stable than trans . trans -Cyclooctene – smallest, isolable trans cycloalkene but still less stable than cis- cyclooctene. H = trans -Cyclooctene DOES exist
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C=C Properties
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Degrees of Unsaturation • Acyclic alkenes – unsaturated hydrocarbons since they have less than the maximum number of H atoms per carbon. • Each π bond or ring removes 2 H atoms from a molecule, and the molecule then has one degree of unsaturation . Acyclic alkanes C n H 2n+2 Cycloalkanes C n H 2n Acyclic alkenes C n H 2n
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• General formula: – Calculate the maximum number of H’s possible. – Subtract the actual number of H’s from the maximum number and divide by 2. DOU = (max. # H – actual # H)/2 • Note: – A halogen is equivalent to an H. – A nitrogen is equivalent to 1 less H.
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course CHEM 107 taught by Professor Stevens during the Spring '08 term at Binghamton University.

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Alkenes - Chapter 10 Alkenes Alkenes Alkenes compounds that contain carbon-carbon double bonds also called olefins Types Terminal alkenes double

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