Chap 5 lecture notes NO ppt

Chap 5 lecture notes NO ppt - Chapter 5- Memory Most...

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Chapter 5- Memory Most research and knowledge in this area comes from the fields of cognitive and biological psychology Memory is much more than taking in information and putting it in some mental compartment…we have to get it back out, too. Memory is reconstructive, meaning that it changes over time. Many psychologists study factors that help or hinder one of the key three functions of memory…thus attempting to answer 3 basic questions Memory – the ability to store and retrieve information over time. We take it for granted, but memory is very complex and also quite fragile, so it’s prone to mindbugs 1. Encoding – the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory (research in this area answers the question of How does information get into memory?) 2. Storage – the process of maintaining information in memory over time (research in this area answers the question of How is information maintained in memory?) 3. Retrieval – the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored (research in this area answers the question of How is information pulled back out of memory?) We’ll study these as three separate functions in class but important to keep in mind that there is a lot of overlap in these functions during the memory process Encoding: Transforming Perceptions into Memories Since the times of ancient Greece, memory has been thought of as a recording device, like a tape recorder or video camera. This is completely incorrect. Memories are made by combining information we already have in our brains with new information that comes in through our senses. Memories are actually constructed, not recorded (hence, encoding). Most instances of spectacular memory performance reflect the skillful use of encoding strategies rather than so-called photographic memory How we remember something depends on how we think about it at the time, in other words, how we process it Levels of Processing – deeper processing of an item results in better memory for it later on. We remember the meanings of words better than how a word looks or sounds 1. Semantic judgments require the participants to think about the meaning of the words (define them or use them in a sentence)- deepest encoding 2. Rhyme (phonemic) judgments require the participants to think about the sound of the words (what do they rhyme with) 3. Visual (structural) judgments require the participants to think about the appearance of the words (physical structure. .. capital letters or lower case, cursive or print)- shallow encoding Elaborative encoding – the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory (e.g., thinking of examples to describe new information or comparing to something known in 1
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your own life). Elaborative encoding is associated with increased activity in the left temporal lobe and the left frontal lobe. In fact, the amount of activity in each of these two regions during encoding is
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Chap 5 lecture notes NO ppt - Chapter 5- Memory Most...

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