Chap 6 lecture notes NO PPT

Chap 6 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter 6- Learning Three...

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Chapter 6- Learning Three primary types of learning: classical conditioning (S-R learning), operant conditioning (R- C learning), and observational learning Learning - some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. There are many different kinds of learning (as many as 40). Some are conscious, some unconscious, but all are based on experience. Learning and memory are strongly linked Habituation - a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding. Example: getting used to environmental noise (traffic or train next to your apartment). This is a simple form of learning. Most basic work in learning took place during the height of Behaviorism. This chapter focuses primarily on research conducted upon the theory of Behaviorism- the approach that advocates psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior. The basic concepts of learning are entirely behavioral. Mental activity was ignored to the point that most behaviorists believed the “permanent change in experience” due to learning could be demonstrated equally well in any organism, which led to the wide use of animal research in psychology It was not until the later half of the 20 th century that learning theorists focused on cognitive, biological, and evolutionary factors in learning Pavlov and Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov, a prominent Russian physiologist in the early 1900’s, who did Nobel prize winning research on digestion, discovered (partly by accident) that dogs will salivate in response to the sound of a tone. In doing so, he discovered classical, sometimes called Pavlovian, conditioning. Classical conditioning is S-R (stimulus-response) learning Classical conditioning involves learning of automatic or reflexive responses (emotional and physiological reactions) Classical conditioning - when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. In classical conditioning, the Unconditioned stimulus (US) is something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism (elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning)…Pavlov’s meat powder. 1
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The Unconditioned response (UR) is a reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (an unlearned reaction to a US that occurs without previous conditioning)… salivating. US à UR = natural unlearned association The Conditioned stimulus (CS) is a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism (but has acquired the capacity to elicit a conditioned ). ..the sound of a tone. The Conditioned response (CR)
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Chap 6 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter 6- Learning Three...

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