Chap 12 lecture notes NO PPT

Chap 12 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter 12 Personality Focus...

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Chapter 12- Personality Focus of this chapter is on different and competing theories of personality development (trait- biological approach, psychodynamic theory, humanistic-existential theory, and social cognitive theory). This is another good chapter in which to consider the nature-nurture debate, especially with regard to each of the theories/approaches. You may agree or disagree with part or all of each theory, but recall that no one theory is completely right and each one that we discuss has something significant to contribute to the field Personality: What It Is and How It Is Measured Personality is an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling. Your personality is different from anyone else’s and expresses itself pretty consistently across settings. Just as biology came of age with Darwin’s theory of evolution, which explained how differences among species arose, the study of personality has also developed explanations of the basis for psychological differences among people What people are like? There is often similarity across descriptions when one person describes many others. In contrast, there is often distinction when several people describe one person Why people are different? Explanations of personality differences are concerned with either prior events that can shape an individual’s personality or anticipated events that might motivate the person to reveal particular personality characteristics. Personality psychologists study how our personalities are determined both by the forces in our minds and in our personal history of heredity and environment and by the choices we make and the goals we seek Measuring Personality- personality measures can be broadly classified into personality inventories and projective techniques Personality inventories gather explicit information about behaviors, thoughts, feelings from individuals or those that know them o Self-report —a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state. Individuals rate themselves on a variety of dimensions. Respondent typically produces a self-description by circling a number on a scale or indicating whether an item is true or false. One example is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) - a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems. The MMPI consists of more than 500 descriptive statements o Most self-reports are generated by studying how specific groups of people completed a 1
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variety of items as compared to the general population and then creating the scales from the items that these groups answered differently o Easily administered and scored but prone to bias and dishonesty in responses, so validity may be questionable, especially if respondent is trying to hide something o Projective techniques - consist of a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit
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Chap 12 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter 12 Personality Focus...

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