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Schacter PSYC 2003 Chap 11 lecture notes NO PPT

Schacter PSYC 2003 Chap 11 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter...

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Chapter 11- Human Development Developmental psychology is the study of continuity and change across the life span Two major themes of development: Transition/Transformation and Continuity/Consistency (some things change and some stay the same) Major stages of development: Prenatal, Infancy and Childhood (main focus), Adolescence, and Adulthood Prenatal Development: conception to birth (the 9 months of pregnancy) Zygote (fertilized egg) - a single cell containing chromosomes from both sperm and egg Three Stages... germinal stage – embryonic stage – fetal stage Germinal stage : First two weeks of pregnancy- cell division of zygote, implantation, and formation of placenta (structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother) take place... half of pregnancies end here, usually unknown to the mother Embryonic stage : Two weeks through two months- zygote becomes an embryo; female-like embryos become masculinized with testosterone production; formation of most vital organs and organ systems (time of great vulnerability- any problems can be devastating for development) Fetal stage : Ninth week until birth (about 40 weeks)- the muscles and bones begin to form and movement starts; body grows rapidly in the last three months; brain becomes much more complex with brain cells multiplying rapidly during the final 3 months and myelination - the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a brain cell takes place Prenatal Environment Placenta physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or fetus and permits the exchange of materials. As such, anything the mother ingests (or fails to ingest), absorbs, or contracts during pregnancy can affect fetal development- biggest concerns are with nutrition, drug/alcohol use, and illness Even though we’re one of the richest and most medically advanced countries in the world, we rank 20 th in terms of infant mortality (a measure of infant health)... that ranks in the same range as Southeast Asian and Eastern European countries. Western Europe and Canada do 2x as good as the USA in infant health, likely due to prenatal health care systems (preventative medicine) Malnutrition itself can lead to birth complications and physical and neurological problems such 1
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as physical defects and schizophrenia Teratogens - agents that can harm the process of development, like drugs and viruses. Chemicals and substances in water, air, food (e.g., lead, mercury) have been of concern for years but are being better controlled due to a better understanding of their effects. However, alcohol, drugs (illegal, prescription, and over-the-counter), and illnesses (e.g., influenza) continue to be serious problems Fetal alcohol syndrome is a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy... it increases the risk of physical birth defects, especially with
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Schacter PSYC 2003 Chap 11 lecture notes NO PPT - Chapter...

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