Schacter PSYC 2003 student outline Chapter 2

Schacter PSYC 2003 student outline Chapter 2 - Chapter 2...

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Chapter 2 The Methods of Psychology Empiricism *Ancient Greece *dogmatists (develop theories) *empiricists (make observations) *Method *Three things make people hard to study *complexity *variability *reactivity The Science of Observation *Observe what people do *“John picked up an apple” *Explain why they do it *“he is going to eat it” *“he is going to throw it at me” *Measurement *must “define” what we wish to measure *must find a way to detect it 1
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The Science of Observation- Definition and Detection *Operational definition *define property to measure in concrete terms *Measure *detect what our definition describes *Easy to measure physical properties *like “distance” *Not so easy to measure psychological properties *like “happiness” The Science of Observation- Problems of Defining and Detecting *Validity—able to draw accurate inferences *Problems of defining *construct validity *predictive validity *Problems of detecting *reliability—same result each time when we expect them? *power- different results when we expect them? 2
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The Science of Observation- Samples *Case method- exceptional individual *Law of large numbers- most studies involve many participants *population *sample- the larger the sample, the more it represents the population
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Schacter PSYC 2003 student outline Chapter 2 - Chapter 2...

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