student outline Chapter 13

student outline Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Psychological...

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Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders Identifying Psychological Disorders *Psychological (mental) disorder- defined *40% will develop a diagnosable disorder in their lifetime *Second only to heart disease in terms of loss of life and health *“Psychological disorder” is a relatively new invention *Historical assumption of demonic possession, punishment from God for sin, or signs of criminality- the mentally ill were often jailed or spiritually “exorcised” *Myths of “madness” and unsightliness *Assumption of bizarre behavior and dangerousness Identifying Psychological Disorders *Medical model (last 200 years in industrialized cultures) *diagnosis, symptoms, syndrome *DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- Fourth Edition, Text Revision)- first published 1952 *not problem-free (psychology is NOT biology) *nonetheless, better than before (more humane) 1
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Defining the Boundaries of Normality *Not just deviation from “average” or “normal” *DSM-IV-TR—three key elements for symptoms to qualify as a potential mental disorder *manifested in symptoms that involve disturbances in behavior, thoughts, or emotions *symptoms associated with significant personal distress or impairment *symptoms stem from an internal dysfunction- biological, psychological, or both Defining the Boundaries of Normality *Determining the degree to which a person has a mental disorder is difficult *Multiaxial system *Global Assessment of Functioning 2
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Classification of Psychological Disorders *Western (USA and Europe) clinicians used to divide disorders into just two categories: *neurosis *psychosis *1952- first Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published and revised several times since *recognized need to have a consensual diagnostic system- provided a common language *early diagnostic criteria still vague *early versions of DSM led to unreliable diagnoses Classification of Psychological Disorders *Newer revisions dropped theoretical concepts in favor of objective behavioral terms and reliability improved *DSM-IV-TR contains 17 categories, but reliability is far from perfect *Comorbidity (presence of more than one disorder) increases diagnostic difficulty 3
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*Medical model suggests that a diagnosis is useful because any given category of illness is likely to have a distinctive cause *Etiology of mental disorders
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2011 for the course PSYC 2003 taught by Professor Swanner during the Spring '07 term at Arkansas.

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student outline Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Psychological...

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