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lecture4 - 5.61 F all 2007 Lecture#4 page 1 Niels Bohr a...

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! ! ! ! 5.61 Fall 2007 Lecture #4 page 1 The ATOM of NIELS BOHR Niels Bohr, a Danish physicist who established the Copenhagen school. (a) Assumptions underlying the Bohr atom (1) Atoms can exist in stable “states” without radiating. The states have discrete energies E n , n = 1, 2, 3,..., where n = 1 is the lowest energy state (the most negative, relative to the dissociated atom at zero energy), n = 2 is the next lowest energy state, etc. The number “ n ” is an integer, a quantum number , that labels the state. (2) Transitions between states can be made with the absorption or Δ E emission of a photon of frequency ν where ν = . h E n 1 h ν h ν or Absorption Emission E n 2 These two assumptions “explain” the discrete spectrum of atomic vapor emission. Each line in the spectrum corresponds to a transition between two particular levels. This is the birth of modern spectroscopy . h (3) Angular momentum is quantized: ! = n " where " = 2 π Angular momentum L = !
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