chapter 3 outline

chapter 3 outline - Chapter 3 outline of textbook Genetic...

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Chapter 3 outline of textbook Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior I. Genes and the Inheritance of Behavioral Characteristics A. Genes 1. Biological units of heredity 2. Replicated and passed along from parent to offspring 3. Crucial to the development of each new individual B. How Genes Affect Behavior 1. Never produce or control behavior directly 2. Effects on behavior occur through their role in building and modifying the physical structures of the body, and those structures, interacting with the environment, produce behavior 3. Especially important for behavior a. Genes that contribute to the development of sensory systems, motor systems, and the nervous system 4. Genes Provide the Codes for Proteins a. Affect body’s development through their influence on the production of protein molecules b. Human body (1.) Made up of roughly 70,000 different kinds of protein molecules (2.) Structural proteins -form structure of every cell of the body (3.) Enzymes -control the rate of every chemical reaction in every cell c. Components of extremely long molecules of DNA, which exist in the egg and sperm cells that join to form a new individual d. Replicate themselves during each cell division in the course of a body’s growth and development (1.) Unique set of DNA molecules exists in the nucleus of each body cell, where it serves as a template for producing RNA, which serves as a template for producing protein molecules e. Protein molecules-chains of amino acids (20 distinct) (1.) Gene -the segment of a DNA molecule that contains the code for manufacturing one specific type of protein molecule 5. Genes Work Only Through Interaction with the Environment a. Environment -refers to every aspect of an individual and his/her surroundings except the genes themselves b. Body and behavioral capacities result from a continuous, complex interplay between genes and environment c. Experience activates genes produce proteins alter the function of some of the neural circuits in the brain change the manner in which the individual behaves
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d. Genotype -set of genes that the individual inherits e. Phenotype -observable properties of the body and behavioral traits f. Same genes can have different effects, depending on the environment and the mix of other genes C. How Genes Are Passed Along in Sexual Reproduction 1. Chromosomes -the structures within the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material (DNA); usually not visible 2. Normal human cell: 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 of which are identical in both sexes a. Remaining pair are the sex chromosomes (1.) Normal human male cell: large chromosome labeled X and small chromosome labeled Y (2.) Normal human female cell: second X chromosome rather than a Y 3. The Production of Genetically Diverse Egg and Sperm Cells a. Mitosis -form of cell division involved in normal body growth, which produces cells that are genetically identical to each other (1.) Each chromosome replicates itself cell divides, with
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chapter 3 outline - Chapter 3 outline of textbook Genetic...

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