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chapter4civillibertiesrevise - Chapter4 CivilLiberties...

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Chapter 4 Civil Liberties
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Civil Liberties/Civil Rights Civil liberties Restrain government’s action against individuals Limits on government power outlined in  Bill of Rights , first  10 amendments to Constitution, 371-2 What government can’t do… Civil rights Rights individuals share as provided for in 14 th  amendment,  guarantees  due process and equal protection  under law,  373 What government must do…(e.g., protect individuals from  discrimination; unequal treatment, etc.)
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Liberties/Rights and Courts Judicial interpretations  shape nature of  civil liberties and civil rights Change over time depending on changing  interpretations Not “set in stone” Hence, importance of  judicial  appointments  and numerous references  to court  cases
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Incorporation Theory Bill of Rights Initially aimed at protecting citizens against  encroachments by national government Grew out of  fear of tyranny Part of  constitutional compromise aimed at limiting  federal government’s power Incorporation theory   View protections of Bill of Rights apply to state  governments through  14 th  Amendment’s  (ratified in  1868)  due process clause ; see page 373
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Table 4-1: Incorporating Bill of Rights into 14 th  Amendment,  67 Year Issue Amendment  Involved Court Case 1925 1931 1932 1937 1940 1947 1948 1949 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Right to a lawyer in capital punishment cases Freedom of assembly and right to petition Freedom of religion Separation of church and state Right to a public trial No unreasonable searches and seizures Exclusionary rule No cruel and unusual punishment Right to a lawyer in all criminal felony cases No compulsory self-incrimination Right to privacy Right to an impartial jury Right to a speedy trial No double jeopardy I I VI I I I VI IV IV VIII VI V I, III, IV, V, IX VI VI V Gitlow v. New York , 268 U.S. 652.
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