chapter5civilrightsrevised

chapter5civilrightsrevised - Chapter5 CivilRights...

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Chapter 5 Civil Rights
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Civil Rights Rights rooted in  14 th  Amendments’  guarantee of  equal protection under the law (equal treatment) What government  must do  to ensure equal protection, to  ensure freedom from discrimination History of civil rights – struggle of groups to free  themselves from discriminatory treatment (African  Americans, women, elderly, homosexuals, etc.) Key cases:  Dred Scott v. Sanford; Plessy v. Ferguson;  Brown v. Board of Education
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Constitution and Slavery In apportioning representation based on population,  constitution refers to free persons and “other persons”  (or slaves) Slave equal to 3/5 of free person Supreme Court confirms constitutionality of slavery in  Dred Scott v. Sanford  (1857) Slaves not citizens of US Not entitled to rights/privileges of citizenship Constitutional servitude ends with Lincoln’s  Emancipation Proclamation (1863) and 13 th , 14 th , and  15 th  Amendments during Reconstruction following Civil  War
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Civil War Amendments   13 th  Amendment (1865)  – neither slavery nor involuntary  servitude shall exist in U.S. 14 th  Amendment (1868)  – all persons born or naturalized in U.S.  are  citizens States cannot abridge privileges or immunities of citizens All  persons  (whether or not citizens) entitled to due process All  persons  entitled to equal protection; citizens have  political rights (vote, run for office) 15 th  Amendment (1870)  – right to vote shall not be denied  because of race, color or previous condition of servitude
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Civil Rights Acts (1865-1875)   Aimed at enforcing 13 th , 14 th , and 15 th   amendments Civil Rights Act (1866) Extended citizenship to anyone born in U.S. Gave African Americans full equality before law Authorized president to enforce act through use of force Enforcement Act (1870) Set out specific penalties for interfering with right to  vote
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Nullification of Civil Rights Acts Reconstruction statutes, civil rights acts did little to secure  legal equality for African Americans Civil Rights Cases (1883) Supreme Court rules 14 th  amendment only prevents  official   discriminatory acts by states, not by private individuals Met with widespread approval throughout U.S. Plessy v. Ferguson  (1896) Supreme Court rules segregation does not violate 14 th  Amendment Established  separate-but-equal doctrine Provided constitutional justification for racial discrimination/segregation  throughout U.S. In South, 
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course POLS 130 taught by Professor Josephsalazar during the Summer '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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chapter5civilrightsrevised - Chapter5 CivilRights...

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