Chapter12 - Chapter12 TheJudiciary CommonLawTradition

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Chapter 12 The Judiciary The Judiciary
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Common Law Tradition   Common law  = judge-made law; originated in  England; derived from prevailing customs Precedent  = court ruling bearing on subsequent legal  decisions in similar cases Emanates from  stare decisis,   or standing on  decided cases Precedents set by  Supreme Court  binding on all  lower courts;  highest court in U.S.
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Sources of American Law   Constitutions United States Constitution State Constitutions Congressional Statutes   Administrative regulations Case law  = previous court decisions
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Basic Judicial Requirements   Jurisdiction (Article III, Section 1)  Authority to hear and decide a case Federal question U.S. Constitution, treaties, federal law Diversity of citizenship Parties from different states or countries Standing to sue Sufficient state to justify bringing suit; party must have  been threatened by or suffered a harm as a result of the  action Justiciable controversy  Real, substantial case; no hypotheticals
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Federal Courts U.S. District Courts Trial courts of general jurisdiction
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Chapter12 - Chapter12 TheJudiciary CommonLawTradition

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