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Geneticsdefinitions - diploid having paired...

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Genetics Definitions genome: all the genetic instructions to make an organism chromosome: a piece of the genome, composed of DNA wrapped around proteins gene: a small part of a chromosome that describes how to make one protein locus: the physical location of a gene on a chromosome trait: physical or chemical characteristic of an organism. Examples: eye color; production of blood clotting factors alleles: different versions of the gene for a trait. Examples: blue or brown eyes; normal clotting factors, hemophilia homologous chromosomes: similar but not identical chromosomes; they may have different alleles at matching loci gametes: sperm or egg cells somatic cells: all cells except gametes
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Unformatted text preview: diploid: having paired chromosomes (humans = 46) haploid: having unpaired chromosomes (humans = 23) sex chromosomes: the X and Y chromosomes that determine gender autosomes: the other 22 pairs of chromosomes homozygous: having two identical alleles for a trait heterozygous: having two different alleles for a trait phenotype: the collection of traits that make an organism genotype: the exact description of what alleles an organism has expressed: appearing as an observable trait in the phenotype dominant: an allele that is expressed no matter what the other allele is recessive: an allele that is only expressed if there are two together...
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