Water - 1/1/11 Atomic structure Water Atom = smallest...

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1/1/11 1 Water Atomic structure Atom = smallest chemical unit Proton (+ charge) Neutron (neutral) Electron (- charge) Figure 2.2 Atomic Number Says how many protons are in nucleus Element Atoms with the same atomic number Example: all atoms of the element oxygen have 8 protons (the atomic number of oxygen is 8) Shells Energy levels surrounding nucleus, where electrons can “orbit” How electrons fit into shells Number of electrons = protons Fill lowest (innermost) energy level first First shell holds up to two electrons; the next shells can hold eight electrons
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1/1/11 2 Try these examples Helium (Atomic # 2) Carbon (Atomic # 6) Chlorine (Atomic # 17) Stability of atoms Atoms are most stable when the outer shell is filled If the outer shell is unfilled, the atom is likely to react Atoms can gain or lose electrons to form ions Covalent bonds Atoms can “share” electrons with other atoms to complete outer shell Example: formation of water Formation of water Molecule Atoms held together by covalent
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course BIOL 101l taught by Professor Huddleston,m during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Water - 1/1/11 Atomic structure Water Atom = smallest...

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