Blood - Blood Overview As a connective tissue, blood...

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Blood
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Overview As a connective tissue, blood consists of  several types of specialized cells in a non- living matrix. We call the former “formed elements”  rather than cells since some consist of cell  fragments. The non-living matrix is called plasma. Blood is ~55% plasma and ~45% formed  elements (allowing for variation).
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Overview Blood serves as a transport medium,  moving material and energy from place to  place within the body. Supplies oxygen to tissues and removes  carbon dioxide. Supplies nutrients to tissues and removes  waste. Maintains electrolyte balance and pH of  cellular environment. Moves heat around body to maintain  temperature.
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Plasma Plasma has the following composition: Water – 90% Proteins – 8% including albumin, globulins, and  fibrinogen Nitrogenous compounds Organic nutrients – including glucose, fatty acids,  and amino-acids Electrolytes – sodium, potassium, calcium, etc. Respiratory gasses – oxygen and carbon dioxide Hormones
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Plasma Proteins Albumin makes up 60% of the weight of  plasma proteins and functions to maintain  colloid osmotic pressure. Globulins include carrier proteins and  immune proteins, particularly antibodies. Fibrinogen is involved in the formation of  clots to prevent fluid loss in the event of  cardiovascular system injury.
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Formed Elements Formed elements include: Erythrocytes – red blood cells (~45% of blood  volume) Leukocytes – white blood cells Platelets – cell fragments involved in clotting. The measured percentage of erythrocytes  in whole blood is called the hematocrit,  and varies with sex and environmental  conditions.
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Erythrocytes Erythrocytes in mammals are enucleated. Shaped like biconcave discs. Essentially bags of hemoglobin. Primarily responsible for transport of blood  gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide). Lack mitochondria and generate ATP by  anaerobic means. Can deform to fit through small capillaries.
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Erythrocytes
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Hemoglobin Hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric protein  consisting of two  α  chains and two  β   chains. Each globin monomer is bound to a heme  group. At the center of each heme group is an  iron atom. This iron atom is the binding site for  molecular oxygen (O 2 ).
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Hemoglobin
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Hemoglobin Binding of O to the heme group changes  the bond angles and alters the  conformation of the globin molecules. Binding of O
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Kasparian during the Spring '10 term at North Texas.

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Blood - Blood Overview As a connective tissue, blood...

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